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Biological Molecules…read more

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Carbohydrates are made up of 3 three elements:
Oxygen…read more

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Monomers and Polymers
A monomer is an atom or small molecule that is
able to chemically bind to other monomers. (Mono
meaning one)
When this chemical binding occurs a polymer is
formed. (Poly meaning many or several)
A polymer is a large molecule usually connected by
covalent bonds made up of smaller monomers.…read more

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Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
Disaccharides are one of the four main chemical groupings
of carbohydrates. They are formed when two
monosaccharides (the most basic units of a carbohydrate)
undergo a `condensation' reaction, that joins them via a
glycosidic bond.
When placed in water a disaccharide forms an aqueous
Two of the most well known disaccharides include lactose
and sucrose.
If more than two monosaccharides are joined together via a
glycosidic bond it is known as a polysaccharide. Examples of
polysaccharides include starch, glycogen and cellulose.…read more

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Functions of carbohydrates
Glucose is one of the main energy sources for living
organisms, both in plants and animals, and is the
simplest and most common forms of carbohydrate.
It can also be used in the manufacture of sweets and
other foods. Plus, due to it's high sugar concentration
the growth of bacteria is inhibited. This allows glucose
to be used as a preservative.
Patients who cannot take sufficient nourishment via the
mouth must have nutrients provided to the body
intravenously. A 5-10% solution of glucose is used for
this intravenous drip.…read more

Slide 6

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Sucrose is a common household sweetener and food additive. It
is used in many different foods and desserts, primarily for its
sweet taste.
It provides a quick burst of energy once consumed
Starch is the most common carbohydrate present in the human
diet. It is found in abundance in foods such as potatoes, maize
and rice, and provides energy for the cells.
In plants, glucose is mainly stored as starch granules, as starch is
insoluble and can be stored much more easily when compared
to glucose, which is soluble in water.
Starch is processed to produce many sugars used in processed
foods, plus it can be used when washing clothes to create a
crisp, clean feeling.
It is also used as an adhesive in the papermaking industry.…read more

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