Biology B1.1

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  • B1.1 ~ Introduction to Biological Molecules
    • Bonding
      • Covalent
        • Atoms share a pair of electrons in their outer shells.
        • The outer shell of both atoms is filled and a more stable compound, called a molecule is formed.
      • Ionic
        • Ions with opposite charges attract one another.
        • The electrostatic attraction is known as an ionic bond.
        • Ionic bonds are weaker than covalent bonds.
      • Hydrogen
        • The electrons within a molecule are not evenly distributed.
        • This region is more negatively charged than the rest of the molecule.
        • A molecule with an uneven distribution of charge is said to be a polar molecule.
        • The negatively charges region of one polarised molecule and the positively charged region of another are attracted to each other.
        • A weak electrostatic bond is formed between the two.
    • Polymerisation
      • Monomers can be linked together to form long chains called monomers.
      • The monomers of a polymer are usually based on carbon.
      • Many polymers such as polyesters are industry produced.
      • Other polymers such as polypeptides are made naturally by living organisms.
      • Untitled
    • Monomers
      • Monomers are the smaller units from which larger molecules are made


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