Battles - Napoleonic Wars

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Mohammad Ammar Qayyum
Napoleonic Battles
Marengo ­ 1800
Napoleon was outnumbered and outgunned, but it was the Austrians (who felt
unable to restore their lines of communication) who negotiated a withdrawal to
Lombardy.
Ulm - 1805
To survive ­ Britain needed the support of continental allies (ALLIANCES). Thus
Britain obtained the support of Russia to drive the French to drive the Swiss and
Holland.
With the only the presence of 50,000 men ­ Austria and Sweden also joined the
coalition. As a result Napoleon abandoned the invasion project.
Austrians focused on Italy, but Mack commanded a force of 50,000 men.
Napoleon swung his 210,000 strong force in a wide concentric arc, in 6 columns
around the Austrian right and rear (TACTICS) ­ N had defeated the Austrians by
manoeuvre alone. Corps system ­ most successful demonstration in this battle
Austerlitz ­ 1805 (defensive battle)
Pinnacle of Napoleons career. His skill and quality of soldiers contrasted with the
weaknesses of his opponents.
The corps again in action - Allied attack began at 4am and as they attacked his
right ­ N unleashed Soult in the centre which cut the allies in half. ­ victory.
1/8 ­ casualties and 1/3 of allies ­ C.
Both battles ­ N use of army corps and divisions revolutionised the whole technique of
strategic movement and became the model strategy adopted by many.
Jena-Auerstadt(1806)
French army marched in 3 columns shielded by light cavalry
N used artillery to inflict casualties
40% casualties ­ Prussians had lost 25,000
N banned the EU states from trading with the `nation of shopkeepers', the British,
extending the military conflict (trade war).
N threatened the enemy force at its most vulnerable point: their lines of supplies. One of
the most successful examples of this strategy was the crushing defeat of Prussia at the
battles of Jena-Auerstadt in October 1806.
After defeating the Prussians ­ N attacked Russia ­ but withdrew due to poor supplies.
Eylau - 1807 (tactics)
Defensive tactics ­ but when the Russians pressed ­ N launched the massed
cavalry of Murat 10,700 strong, into the Russian infantry.

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Mohammad Ammar Qayyum
Friedland (1807)
N attacked the R indecisively at Heilsberg and was compelled to march around the
flank to turn a defensive.
Both sides reinforced armies ­ N to 80,000 + 118 guns an R ­ 60,000 with 120
guns.
Artillery played an important role. Guns sent by Victor's corps ­ reduced the range
to 450 yards, then further 250 yards and finally to 60 yards. It demoralised the
Russians ­ they pulled back.…read more

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Mohammad Ammar Qayyum
The allies (Austria, Britain and Sweden) defeated Napoleon ­ abdicates.
Hundred Days ; Waterloo (1815)
40,000 dead and wounded and 22,000 for the allies.
They had to fall back on crude attack columns ­ which had become predictable
Wellington ­ `they came on in the same old way and we stopped them in the same way.…read more

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