Napoleon & Europe

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  • Napoleon & Europe
    • Military successes:
      • October 1805: Napoleon defeated the Austrians at Ulm with minimal French lossss.
      • December 1805: Defeated the far larger Austro-Russian forces at Austerlitz.
        • Ended Austria's part in the coalition and forced Russia to retreat.
      • July 1806: Napoleon established the 'Confederation of the Rhine' in central/ western Germany, which provoked the Prussians into joining the coalition in September.
      • October 1806: Prussians were completely  defeated at Jena and Auerstadt and Napoleon entered Berlin.
        • Prussia was under French army occupation until an indemnity of 120 million francs was paid.
      • 1807: A battle at Eylau in Feb and Friedland in June brought the total withdrawal of Russian troops,
        • June/July 1807: Napoleon made peace with Tsar Alexander I with the Treaty of Tilsit.
    • The Third Coalition
      • William Pitt (British Prime Minister) formed an alliance with Russia in April 1805.
        • Austria joined the coalition a few months later in 1805.
      • Prussia initially remained neutral with hopes of seizing British Hanover, but joined the coalition against France in 1806.
    • Ending conflict of the Second Coalition
      • 1800: Napoleon still faced a combination of Austrian, Prussian and British troops.
        • May: Nearly lost a battle against the Austrians Marengo after an exhausting delayed journey through the Swiss Alps. Reserve troops enabled French to win the day.
          • Reserve troops demonstrates the depth and quality of Napoleon's military.
        • December: France was victorious against the Austrians in Hohenlinden.
          • Austria was forced to sign the Treaty of Lunéville in February 1801.
            • France was allowed to keep all former gains (Belgium, left bank of the Rhine, Northern Italy) as well as taking new lands in Tuscany, while Austria lost all it's Italian lands apart from Vienna.
      • The Peace of Amiens 1802
        • France agreed to: leave the United Provinces, Naples and the Papal States.
        • Britain agreed to: return all overseas territories taken in the past 9 years to France. Return Minorca, Egypt and Malta to their original ownership.
          • The peace did not last, neither side fully honoured it's terms (B stayed in Malta and F in UP.) In May 1803 Britain declared war again.
            • France agreed to: leave the United Provinces, Naples and the Papal States.
    • Napoleon and Italy
      • February 1808: Napoleon ordered the occupation of Rome. In March, the Papal provinces of Ancona, Macerata, Fermo & Urbino were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy.
        • Diplomatic relations between the French and the Papacy were broken and this demonstrated the continental power had shifted in favour of Napoleon.
        • May 1809: Napoleon was excommunicated after two decrees were issued annexing further territories to the French Empire.
          • The Pope was given a pension of 2 million Francs per annum in lieu.
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