Napoleonic wars

  • Created by: Shahz123
  • Created on: 27-01-19 16:53

First Coalition - ITALY & EGYPT: 1793-1797

Italian Campaign:

- Replaced monarchy with a republic, main enemies Britain, Prussia & Austria

- Takes control of the Italian army in 1796, takes place between 1796-97

- Battle of Lodi most victorious, write treaty of Campo Formio in 1797

- French took parts of Italy, Napoleon was seen as a saviour, Ends war against 1st coalition

Egypt 1798-1799:

- Sent to Egypt bc Directory couldn't handle his power

- Cut of British trade to India, French fleets destroyed at Aboukir by Nelson

- Greatest victory at the battle of pyramids, success at Jaffa, stalled at Acre

- Nelson exposed his personal letters to Josephine, he was humiliated 

- "Limped" home in 1799 after the defeat

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Second Coalition 1799-1802:

- 1799 became 1st consul, contacted George III for peace - rejected

- Austria, Britain & Russia agreed to 2nd Coalition, Austria took Italian land back when in Egypt

- Napoleon crossed the Alps & defeated Austrians at Marengo June 1800

- Italians see Napoleon as a liberator, especially Milan

- Austrians forced into Germany, destroyed & forced to sign the Treaty of Luneville in 1801

- Second Coalition destroyed without Austria

- British then sign the Treaty of Amiens in 1802

- French got Belgium, parts of Rhine and Italian territory 

- British then gave back Egypt to the Ottoman Empire

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Thrid Coalition 1805:

- Another coalition with the same 3 countries against France

- Napoleon dominated land, Britain did the seas = stalemate

- Prepared huge invasion & army fleet at Boulogne in 1803, British navy & seas make it hard

- 1804 becomes Emperor, October 1805 tries again, Amiral Nelson defeat them at Trafalgar

- Austrians began to march mass army at the river Danube, Napoleon shocked the Austrians with his speed in moving the grand army from Chanel to Italy

- Marched against them & beat them at Ulm in October 1805

- Defeated combined Austrians & Russian army at the battle of Austerlitz in 1805

- Seen as a great victory, Austria pay reparations, and victory in Italy & lost land in Germany

- Lots of rewards, bonuses and pensions for the army, the army loved him, even more, the rewards

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Fourt Coalition 1806- 1807:

- Napoleon obsessed with a trade war against Britain = continental system

- Austria hated France's influence in Germany, negotiations with Prussia and Russia broke down

- One week campaign defeated the Prussian army at Jenna - Austerstadt in October in 1806

- Napoleon forced the continental system on Prussia

- Napoleon marched through Poland & met Marie Walewska to take on Russians

- Defeated them at Eylau then Friedland

- Signed treaty with Russia, Treaty of Tilst in July 1807 on a raft in the middle of river Tilst

- Napoleon and Tsar Alexander met and signed the treaties

- Established the Grand Duchy of Warsaw

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