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PENINSULAR WAR 1808- 1814(COLLAPSE OF THE NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE)
· Napoleon made the Milan Decrees 23rd November 1807 which extended the continental
blockade to neutral states.
· The French seized the port of Lisbon on the 30th November 1807 but most of its government
and royal family had fled and evaded capture.
· FAILURES: about half the men who fought in the war were lost (300,000)
· It completely failed in its primary objective in enforcing the blockade.
· Napoleon was unable to enforce the blockade along the coastline as the trade between had
actually doubled between 1808 and 1809.
· EVENTS: Napoleon believed that if he removed the two institution of monarchy and church
that he could bring Spain closer to him which failed because the Spanish were very loyal to
their king and very religious. They feared he was trying to make Spain into that of France.
This triggered an uprising in Madrid against French occupation on 2-3rd of May 1808 ­ Murat
retaliated by executing 100 Spaniards for killing 31 Frenchmen This roused the whole
population in an patriotic retaliation against the French..
· Spanish set up juntas organised by the clergy and Nobility which set up guerrilla fighting units
who defeated the French at Baylen in July 1808 (Spanish regular troops). Napoleon arrives in
Spain in Autumn 1808 with 270,000 men strong.
· DEFEAT: Napoleon wasn't able to adjust to guerrilla warfare, Napoleon leaving Spain at the
beginning of 1809 lowered morale, wellington as a commander, British Naval supplying
supplies, little opportunity to live of the land.
· CONSEQUENCES: Raised Doubts in Napoleons military and political judgement, Large
numbers of ordinary Spanish people rose in revolt, encouraged other countries to try and
defeat Napoleon as he was suffering huge defeats, Inspired Guerrilla warfare and
Nationalism in countries like Germany and Italy and weakened France as a lot of good men
was lost.…read more

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CONTINENTAL BLOCKADE (COLLAPSE OF THE NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE)
· BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Was set up in November 1806. The aim of the
blockade was to cut off Britain from Europe and destroy their economy as they
could not be defeated by a naval or land attack. Two main aims were to destroy
British trade and exclude Britain from Europe's affairs.
· PROBLEMS WITH CONTINENTAL BLOCKADE: It Was not executed properly as it
weakened British trade but did not destroy it though British trade in the Peninsular
doubled between 1808 and 1809.
· British retaliated with their own Blockade and stopped all Neutral ships going to
Europe including American ships causing war of 1812.
· The blockades weakened France economy and the economies of the lands
controlled by France.
· British exports went form £48 million in 1810 from £38 million in 1808…read more

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INVASION OF RUSSIA (COLLAPSE OF
THE NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE)
· NAPOLEON ENTERED RUSSIA ON THE 14TH SEPTEMBER 1812.
· BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Tsar and Napoleon were allies after the Battle of Fried land in
June 1807.
· Napoleon thought that Tsar was selling grain to Britain
· Napoleon feared that Tsar wanted Poland from France.
· These were key factors to why he decided to Invade Russia on the 22nd June of 1812 with a
drafted army from all over Europe: 420,000 soldiers. Napoleons army was greatly conscripted as
only 270,000 of the 600,000 strong Grande armee were actually French which created a dent in
loyalty.
· FAILURES: Tsar had put in place a scorched earth policy which destroyed everything to keep
from the French which meant they were unable to live of the land. The lack of supplies causes
death and desertions amongst his armies.
· Napoleon was unable to force a battle on the enemy by luring them towards him.
· Napoleon cut medical supplies and supplies ere low. Disease struck down 60,000 men before
the campaign had even really begun. 1000 horses died from eating unripe corn.
· 7th September 1812: Battle of Borodino which costed the French 30,000 men and the Russians
50,000.
· Retreat began : 19th October 1812. 35,000 men lost in that week.
· 350,000 men died before they reached Moscow.
· DEFEAT: Napoleons Grande Amree was destroyed losing around 400,000 men. It was due to lack
of knowledge of the land, Napoleons confidence, wrong equipment and bad management.…read more

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WAR WITH AUSTRIA (COLLAPSE OF
THE NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE)
· BACKGROUND INFORMATION: the Spanish's morale and resistance roused into Austria
and encouraged them to renew their efforts. When Napoleon reached Paris from Spain
he faced the reality of fighting on two fronts.
· The Austrians had a new reformed and rejuvenated army with the Arch Duke Charles
leading it who the Duke of Wellington saw to be the best general of the age. Napoleon
left Paris on the 14th July 1809 but with an Army that was not the same as the ones he
had beat Austria with before as most of his good men where tied down in the
peninsular.
· Napoleon caught up with the Austrian army in Eckmüll and inflicted a decisive victory
upon them and on the 12th of May Napoleon occupied Vienna. When Napoleon left
Vienna The Duke attacked in a two day Battle known as the Battle of Aspern in which
each side lost around 20,000 men each and Napoleon had to withdrew onto a large
island (1st defeat). Third encounter took place on the 2-4th July 1809 at Wagram and
both sides lost around 30,000 men (Napoleon not able to inflict an decisive defeat)
· In October the treaty of Schönbrunn was signed: Austria could only have an army of
150,000 men, had to join the continental blockade, lost the Illyrian provinces with their
population of 3.5 million and had to pay France 85 million francs.
· CONSEQUENCES: Showed Napoleon had lost his touch as he had been beaten by the
Arch Duke Charles and that his army was not so unbeatable no more. He was fighting
on two fronts but he normal fights 1 at a time `Divide and Rule'.…read more

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ALLIES AND THE SIXTH COALITION (COLLAPSE OF THE NAPOLEONIC
EMPIRE)
· BACKGROUND INFORMATION: the defeats in Russia and destruction of the Grand
armee led to a political realignment with the European powers which began in February
1813 with the signing of the Anti- French Alliance which was signed by Russia and
Prussia. Tsar organised the 6th Coalition which included Russia, Prussia and Britain.
· Napoleon amassed an army of 170,000 through mobilisation and conscription to face he
Russian and Prussian enemy. Prussia declared war on Napoleon on the 16th March 1813.
· The campaign was short and quick: consisting of two battles fought at Lützen on the 2nd
of May 1813 and Bautzen on the 20th May 1813.
· Napoleon was victorious but was unable to delver a decisive victory.
· Napoleon was fighting on two fronts again as he was still fighting in the Peninsular
which meant shared resources so he was pressured to accept the Austrians Armistice
on the 4th June 1813.
· PEACE NEOTIATIONS: Napoleon was asked to return the Illyrian provinces to Austria,
give up the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, withdraw frim Italy and Germany and recognise
the independence of the states of the confederation of Rhine.
· Napoleon always believed that war over diplomacy was best and fought that if he
agrees he would lose his power as he is not an hereditary sovereign like the other
countries but an unstart soldier.
· He denied the deal and agreed to war.…read more

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