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Section One…read more

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Amino Acid- The basic unit from which proteins are made. There are 20 amino
acids in total
· Artemisinin- A substance extracted from the leaves of the shrub Artemisia Annua .
It is widely used in south-east China for the Treatment of Malaria
· Bacteria- Microorganisms that lack a distinct nucleus and many of the other
structures found in plant and animal cells.
· Breeding- Reproducing offspring
· Cholesterol- An oily lipid which is important component of cell membranes. A
person with high cholesterol has a higher risk of getting heart disease.
· Chymosin- One of two protein-digesting enzymes which form Rennet. When added
to milk, chymosin causes the formation of solid curds.
· Citric Acid- A weak acid found mainly in citric fruits
· Enzyme- Protein which catalyses the chemical reactions which digest food in the
gut and the thousands of chemical reactions which take place in cells
· Ester- Carbon compound made from the reaction of an organic acid with an
· Ethics- The study of values and customs of a person or group…read more

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Fermentation- When microorganisms break down large molecules in the absence of
oxygen (anaerobic conditions) to produce different substances including foodstuffs
and drugs.
Filtration- The process where a liquid is passed through a fine mesh to remove any
small particles
Gelling Agent- A substance added to food to thicken it and make it less runny.
Gene- A section of DNA which controls the synthesis of a protein or part of a protein
Genetic Engineering- The techniques used to identify, isolate and insert useful genes
from the genetic material of cells of one species into the genetic material of another
Genetic Modification- A species into which are transferred is said to be genetically
modified (GM). The genes are transferred using the techniques of genetic engineering.
Genome- The sequence of bases of all of the genetic material of an organism
Genomics- The science of working out the sequence (order) of the bases of the
molecules of DNA which made up a genome
Glutamic Acid- An amino acid
Herbicide- A chemical used to kill weeds
Insulin- The hormone which lowers the level of glucose in the blood…read more

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Invertase- An enzyme(also called sucrase) which catalyses conversion of sugar
sucrose into glucose and fructose
· Lactic Acid- Produced when lactic acid bacteria ferment the sugar lactose in the
absense of oxygen
· Lactose- A complex sugar made from a combination of simple sugars glucose and
· Malaria- A disease characterised by a regular cycle of high fever and chills, caused
by the parasite Plasmodium
· Microorganism- An organism which can only be seen under a microscope.
Sometimes called a microbe.
· Obesity- A conditon where a persons bmi is over 30. They have too much fat for
their body size
· Oligosaccharide- A carbohydrate molecule formed from 3 to 10 simple sugars
joined together.
· Parkinsons Disease- A disease characterised by the patient's inabiltiy to control
muscle movements due to the lack of the neurotransmitter dopamine
· Pasteurisation- A process of heating food to reduce the numbers of harmful
bacteria…read more

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Prebiotics- Foods which contain oligosaccharides. The sugars are food for beneficital
bacteria in the gut, promoting increase in their numbers.
· Quinine- An antimaliral drug originally extracted from the bark and leaves of the
cinchona tree.
· Resistance- The process where disease causing organisms can withstand the actions
of drugs which previously would have killed them
· Salicin- A substance originally extracted from the bark of the willow tree. It is a pain
reliever. It can be converted into salicyclic acid , which is more effective and is the
base of asprin
· Stem Cells- Cells which can develop and change into different types of body cells by
· Taxol- An anti cancer drug orignally extracted from the Pacific Yew Tree
· Toxin- A poison
· Vector- A carrier of genes from the cells of one species to the cells of another species.
· Yeast- A single celled fungus…read more


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