Biology Keywords

  • Created by: Kaja Koz
  • Created on: 02-10-18 19:16

Algae

Simple aquatic organisms that make their own food via photosynthesis.

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Alveoli

Tiny air sacs in the lungs that increase the surface area for gas exchange.

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Bacteria

Single-celled prokaryotic organisms.

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Cell Membrane

The membrane around the contents of a cell that control what moves in and out of the cell.

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Cell Wall

The rigid structure around the plant and algal cells, it is made of cellulose & strengthens the cell.

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Cellulose

The complex carbohydrate that makes up the plant and algal cell walls and gives them strength.

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Chlorophyll

The green pigment contained in the chloroplasts.

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Chloroplasts

The organelles in which photosynthesis takes place.

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Cytoplasm

The water-based gel in which organelles of all living cells are suspended and most of the chemical reactions of life take place.

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Diffusion

The  spreading out of the particles of any substance in a solution, or particles in a gas, resulting in a net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration  down a concentration gradient.

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Eukaryotic Cells

Cells from eukaryotes that have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and genetic material enclosed in a nucleus.

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Hypertonic (osmosis)

A solution that is more concentrated than the cell contents.

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Hypotonic (osmosis)

A solution that is less concentrated than the cell contents.

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isotonic (osmosis)

A solution that is the same concentration as the cell contents.

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Mitochondria

The site of aerobic cellular respiration in a cell.

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Nucleus

Organelle found in many living cells containing the genetic information surrounded by the nuclear membrane.

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Osmosis

The diffusion of water through a partially permeable membrane (PPM) from a dilute solution (which has a high concentration of water) to a concentrated solution (with a low concentration of water) down a concentration gradient.

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Partially Permeable Membrane (PPM)

A membrane that allows only certain substances to pass through.

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Permanent Vacuole

Space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.

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Phloem

The living transport tissue in plants that carries dissolved food (sugars) around the plant.

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Plasymolysis

The state of plant cells when so much water is lost from the cell by osmosis that the vacuole and cytoplasm shrink and the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall (plant is shrivelled).

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Prokaryotric Cells

From prokaryotic organisms have a cytoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane, and a cell wall that does not contain cellulose. The genetic material is a DNA loop that is free in the cytoplasm and not enclosed by a nucleus. Sometimes there are one or more small rings of DNA called plasmids.

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Resolving Power

A measure of ability to distinguish between two seperate points that are very close together, it is often used to measure the ability of a microscope.

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Ribosomes

The site of protein synthesis in a cell.

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Sperm

The male sex cells or gametes that carry the genetic material from the male parent.

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Stomata

Openings in the leaves of plants, particularly on the underside and opened and closed by guarded cells, allowing gases to enter and leave the leaf.

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Turgor

The pressure inside a plant cell exerted by the cell contents pressing on the cell wall.

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Ventilated

Movement of air or water  into and out of the gas exchange organ, for example lungs or gills.

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Xylem

The non-living transport tissue in plants that transport water from the roots to the leaves and shoots.

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