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Atypical behaviour
Key concepts:

Typical behaviour is a behaviour which is considered normal as it applies to the majority of people.
Atypical behaviour, on the other hand, is the opposite of typical behaviour. In other words, atypical
behaviour is a behaviour which is considered abnormal as it applies to minority…

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They're afraid if they embarrass themselves during their presentation (or whilst they're talking)
Getting undressed in the changing room

Social phobia is when a person is always scared of being embarrassed whilst they're in a social
contact. For example, whilst doing a presentation, the person with the social phobia would…

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Unconditioned stimuli (UCS) trigger the UCR. This can be an object or an event which can
naturally cause the reaction. E.g, poison causes people to vomit, motivating genitals can cause
arousal and a treat can make a person anxious.
Not all responses happen because of UCS. They can happen because…

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Behaviourists also believe that both humans and animals can be classically conditioned. Below is an
example of a dog being classically conditioned.

UCS (food) UCR (The dog salivating)

UCS (food) +NS (bell) UCR (The dog salivating)

CS (bell) UCR (The dog salivating)

So in this example the unconditioned response is…

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Classical conditioning normally includes stimulus generalisation in which related conditioned
response for example the dog may salivate to the sound of other bells or a person will vomit
when they see any other plate of chips and not just the one that made them sick!
The CR would fade away…

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The similar object, context or activity related to the CS trigger that fear.
E.g, a person, who has a phobia of bees, would be afraid of the original bee which stung them
and also all other bees too. They may even be scared of other insects which look like bees…

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Certain objects and situations are more threatening to everyone's survival than others ­ e.g, the
dark, heights, flying, closed spaces, rats. They build phobias in people
The reason why people are scared of animals is because they do not look like humans and the
shape and form are completely different…

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Watson crept behind the baby and hit the steel bar with a hammer! ­ they repeated this seven
time within two weeks.


At the end of seven trials, Little Albert was frightened of the white rat alone, as well as the
hammer hitting the steel bar!
When Watson and…

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Example: the person suffering from acrophobia may feel relaxed whilst travelling by plane. Or the person
suffering from arachnophobia may have a normal heart beat once they're near spiders.

Systematic desensitisation

Systematic desensitisation is like an ethical form of behaviour therapy. This can be used to treat
people's phobias because…


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