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Atypical behaviour
Key concepts:
Typical behaviour is a behaviour which is considered normal as it applies to the majority of people.
Atypical behaviour, on the other hand, is the opposite of typical behaviour. In other words, atypical
behaviour is a behaviour which is considered abnormal as it applies to minority of people. An
example of typical behaviour is that most people obey at certain points in life. Also it's typical of them to
forget things and form attachments with the people we love.…read more

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They're afraid if they embarrass themselves during their presentation (or whilst they're talking)
Getting undressed in the changing room
Social phobia is when a person is always scared of being embarrassed whilst they're in a social
contact. For example, whilst doing a presentation, the person with the social phobia would worry too
much about how people think about him/her (or in other words, be selfconscious).…read more

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Unconditioned stimuli (UCS) trigger the UCR. This can be an object or an event which can
naturally cause the reaction. E.g, poison causes people to vomit, motivating genitals can cause
arousal and a treat can make a person anxious.
Not all responses happen because of UCS. They can happen because of neutral stimulus
(NS). Neutral stimulus does not usually trigger any reaction. E.g, a plate of chips, a type of
music or the inside of the bus.…read more

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Behaviourists also believe that both humans and animals can be classically conditioned. Below is an
example of a dog being classically conditioned.
UCS (food) UCR (The dog salivating)
UCS (food) +NS (bell) UCR (The dog salivating)
CS (bell) UCR (The dog salivating)
So in this example the unconditioned response is the dog salivating after it sees its food (the
unconditioned stimulus. The dog then associates its food with the bell (the neutral stimulus).…read more

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Classical conditioning normally includes stimulus generalisation in which related conditioned
response for example the dog may salivate to the sound of other bells or a person will vomit
when they see any other plate of chips and not just the one that made them sick!
The CR would fade away over time if the association does not continue.…read more

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The similar object, context or activity related to the CS trigger that fear.
E.g, a person, who has a phobia of bees, would be afraid of the original bee which stung them
and also all other bees too. They may even be scared of other insects which look like bees or
`act' like bees, such as wasps.
2. Operant conditioning is when a person learns the consequences and if the consequences are
good then it is most likely the actions would be done again.…read more

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Certain objects and situations are more threatening to everyone's survival than others ­ e.g, the
dark, heights, flying, closed spaces, rats. They build phobias in people
The reason why people are scared of animals is because they do not look like humans and the
shape and form are completely different
Animals have different genes compared to humans, therefore there is a chance of the animals
attacking the humans ­ e.…read more

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Watson crept behind the baby and hit the steel bar with a hammer! ­ they repeated this seven
time within two weeks.
At the end of seven trials, Little Albert was frightened of the white rat alone, as well as the
hammer hitting the steel bar!
When Watson and Rayner presented the white rat to the baby, he began to cry and avoid it.…read more

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Example: the person suffering from acrophobia may feel relaxed whilst travelling by plane. Or the person
suffering from arachnophobia may have a normal heart beat once they're near spiders.
Systematic desensitisation
Systematic desensitisation is like an ethical form of behaviour therapy. This can be used to treat
people's phobias because it can condition clients to form new associations more gradually.…read more


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