Attachment Revision Pack

Easy to print pack including everything needed for the attachment section.

  • Description of models
  • Evaluation of models
  • & Past paper questions and model answers.

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  • Created on: 15-03-13 14:17
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Describe & evaluate research into types of attachment
(strange situation)
Description (6 marks) Evaluation (6 marks)
The
study
is
high
in
int
ernal
val
idi
ty.
The
exper
iment
ers
coul
d
AIMS:
co ntr
ol
the
va r
iabl
es, e.
g.
the
length
of
each episode.
To investigate individual differences in attachment types.
PROCEDURE:
Used controlled observation. Set up a procedure called the `strange situation'. T h e
study
is
very
ea si
l
y repl
icat
ed as
it
i
s a
lab
exp er
iment.
Mother & infant are brought into the experimental room & observed through a two way S o me r
esearchers
ha ve
test
ed i
nfants
usi
ng
the
strange
mirror in a range of situations (8 episodes), e.g. infant alone with mother, infant completely
alone, infant alone with stranger.
situati
on at
18 months,
then
tested
the
same
ch i
l
d r
en agai
n at
Experiment designed to test 3 things: stranger anxiety, separation protest and behaviour 6 y ear
s ol
d & f
o und
the at
tachme nt
t
ypes
h ad
no t
changed
­
on reunion with caregiver. this suppor
ts
the f
act t
hat
it
i
s a
reli
abl
e mea sur
e.
I.e.
i
t
FINDINGS: 3 attachment types found (secure & 2 insecure types): pr oduces
the same
resul
ts
over t
ime.
I
t
is
fai
rl
y easy
to
est
abl
ish
a cause
and
eff
ect
r
elat
ionshi
p
bet
w een
the
vari
ables
as
the exper
iment
ers
w er
e cont
rol
li
ng
many ext
raneous
vari
ables.
× Mai
n &
Sol
omon
clai
med
that
t
hey
had
found
a f
our
th
type
of
at
tachment
(t
ype D).
Thi
s was
call
ed
insecur
e ­
disor
ganised
&
d i
sor
ient
ated.
These
babies
did
not
know how t
o cope
&
showed
a conf
used mixt
ure
of
approach
& avoi
dance.
×The
study
lacks
mundane
real
ism.
The
babi
es
w er
e not
i
n t
hei
r
nat
ural
set
ti
ng
& t
his
may
have
aff
ect
ed
thei
r
behavi
our
.
×The
study
may
be
cul
tur
all
y bi
ased
(et
hnocent
ri
c)
as
it
was
devi
sed
& car
ri
ed
out
i
n Amer
ica.
CONCLUSION:
There are three types ­ secure attachment and two types of insecure.

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Page 2

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The strange situation is a good measure of attachment. Secure attachment is the preferred
type in America.
Examples of short answer questions on types of attachment & the `Strange Situation'
(1) Violet hates being left by her mother at nursery. Violet clings to her mother's legs when she tries to leave,
and it is very difficult for the nursery workers to calm her down after her mother has gone. When her mother
comes to pick her up, Violet is very angry with her and sulks.…read more

Page 3

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Describe & evaluate research into cultural variations in
attachment.
Description (6 marks) Evaluation (6 marks)
Using meta-analysis means lots of data is combined.
The use of lots of data makes the study more reliable as it is more likely that it
can be generalised to wider situations.
Aims: To investigate any cross-cultural differences in
attachment using the strange situation test. The findings are important as they have implications for explaining
attachment ­ i.e.…read more

Page 4

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Akim Abraham (!) has been raised on a `kibbutz' in
Israel. On the kibbutz he spends most of his time with
lots of other children and adults. He knows everyone
who lives in the community as they live communally and
share everything. Akim carries out the strange
situation procedure with his mother. He is found to be
insecurely attached.…read more

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Describe & evaluate the effects of disruption of
attachment
Description (6 marks) Evaluation (6 marks)
Short-Term Effects of Separation PDD model was supported by Robertson & Robertson who found
PDD Model evidence of the 3 stages in several case studies of children who
Robertson & Bowlby (1952) ­ Children separated from mother spent time away from their caregivers in hospital, e.g. Little John and
sometimes showed a behaviour pattern characterised in 3 stages: Laura (`A two year old goes to hospital').…read more

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Many of these negative effects are permanent & × However,
ther
e may have
been
e xper
imenter
expect
ancy ef
fect
s.
irreversible. Bowlby
assessed
`af
fect
ionl
ess
psychopathy'
t
hrough
int
ervi
ews.
An example of such effects is `affectionless psychopathy'. Ther
e i
s no
clear
cr
it
eri
a f
or
thi
s,
so i
t
is
subj
ecti
ve.
This can develop in response to maternal deprivation & is
characterised by a lack of conscience. I.e.…read more

Page 7

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In short, Bowlby would claim she could
be damaged emotionally, socially and intellectually in
later life.
(4 marks)
(2) Simon, a two-year-old boy, was left by his parents
in a residential nursery for nine days. His mother did
not see him during this time because she was in
hospital. He was looked after by many different
carers who gave him good physical care. Explain how
Simon's behaviour might change as a result of
disruption of attachment.…read more

Page 8

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Describe & evaluate research into the effects of
privation (failure to form an attachment)
Description (6 marks) Evaluation (6 marks)
(Privation- lack of any attachment) H & T's study had high mundane realism, which means that the
findings could be generalised to similar situations. This therefore
increases the external validity of their findings.…read more

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Examples of short answer questions on effects of privation (failure to form attachment)
1. Explain the difference between privation and disruption of attachment. You may use examples to help explain
the difference.
Disruption of attachment refers to when an attachment has been formed but is broken, normally during the
critical period of 0-2.5 years of age. This can be short term, e.g. when a child's PCG goes into hospital for a
week or so (explained by Robertson and Bowlby's PDD model) or long term, e.g.…read more

Page 10

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Romanian adoptees entered the orphanage as small babies between one
and two weeks olds × Relatively small sample size-can it really be
Conditions in the institute were poor. applied to the population as a whole?
58 babies were adopted before they were 6 months old and 59 were
adopted between 6 and 24 months of age. 48 babies were classed as
late place adoptees (between 2 and 4 years.) These formed the 3 High mundane realism-Naturalistic experiment
conditions of the naturally occurring independent variable.…read more

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