Attachment Definition:- a strong emotional bond shared between two people, it is a two way process which endures over time.
Attachment Behaviours:- Maccoby, Schaffer & Emerson (1964)
Maccoby Attachment behaviours:- Joy on reunion, seeking proximity, distress on separation, orientation towards attachment figure.
Schaffer & Emerson (1964) Glasgow Babies:-
- Observed 60 working class babies from birth
- Longitudinal study - 1 year
- Observed separation anxiety and stranger distress
- Observed babies using a four point scale and interviewed mothers
- Most babies formed primary attachment around ages 7 months
- Formed multiple attachments 1 month after first attachment formed
- Responsiveness key factor in attachment formation/strength
AO2 :- +Study is relatively old +Longitudinal study - more reliable +Triangulation - used a variety of methods providing rich data -only working class sample -cannot be generalised to all class' +High EV as babies observed in own homes -interviewing time consuming, demand characteristics
Explanations of Attachment :- Evolutionary
Evolutionary Explanations:- Bowlby
- Attachment is adaptive:- promotes survival as it ensures safety and food
- Critical Period:- if attachment does not form before aged 2.5 years, attachments are more difficult to form.
- Social releasers:- e.g. crying,laughing, smiling Babies are born with cute faces and use social releasers which elicit caregiving promoting their survival.
- Quality of care over quantity:- Ainsworth (1974) proposed caregiving sensitivity hypothesis - responsive mothers = secure attachment
- Monotropy:- one attachment is more significant than the rest
- Internal Working Model:- Babies internalise their experiences of attachment to create a model which generates expectations of other relationships (Hazan & Shaver)
AO2:- -Schaffer & Emerson found multiple attachments are normal, going against Bowlby's theory of monotropy +Hazan & Shaver found strong relationship between adult attachment type and childhood attachment type - Main & Goldwyn proposed 'earned security', although person had difficult childhood, positive adult relationships formed -Ignores learning theory, oversimplified, reductionist +Influenced care of children +Cannot be proven wrong -Critical period concept too strong, 'sensitive period' more appropriate -IWM alternative explanations, 'temperamental hypothesis' some babies may be better at forming attachments
This research was pioneered by Mary Ainsworth & The Strange Situation