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Attachment = a strong, enduring, emotional and reciprocal relationship between two people. The bond involves seeking closeness and
feeling secure when in the presence of the attachment figure. The first attachments to form are between an infant and their caregiver.
Learning Theory. + A strength of learning theory…

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3. Secure base for exploration ­ attachments than it was thought possible. It may be that
provide a secure base. Exploration is crucial multiple attachments are the norm rather than
for the development of cognitive skills. the exception.
Important factors in attachments: - The importance of monotropy may be

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upset when the mother leaves but is not comforted by her
return, simultaneously seeks contact with the mother
whilst resisting attempts to be comforted.
o Parenting Style = inconsistent mothers who
discourage independence.
4. (Very rare) Type D: Disorganised ­ dazed and confused,
with no coherent way of dealing with…

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To investigate whether separation in early life would case when separated from his mother but to further
behavioural problems later in life. this creates ethical issues.
88 children were referred to a child guidance counsellor. - Lacks population validity ­ only one child was
44 were reported as being thieves…

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Rutter et al. institutionalisation to be studied. However, there
A longitudinal study on 100 Romanian orphans who had is the risk of participants dropping out of the
been adopted by British carers. All the orphans had study due its length meaning all data on the
experienced severe privation before their…

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Aged 6 ½ the social competence of the children was - Culture bias ­ the study was conducted in Sweden
assessed. The carers were asked to provide detailed therefore making it difficult to generalise the
information regarding the child's social skills. findings to other cultures, especially when
At 8 ½…


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