Attachment - AQA (A) PSYA1

Includes everything you need to know for Attachment for AQA A As Psychology: 

•Explanations of attachment, including learning theory and Bowlby’s theory

• Types of attachment: secure attachment, insecure-avoidant and insecureresistant

• Use of the “Strange Situation” in attachment research

• Cultural variations in attachment

• The effects of disruption of attachment, failure to form attachment (privation)

and institutional care

Attachment in everydaylife

• The impact of different forms of day care on children’s social development,

including the effects on aggression and peer relations

• How research into attachment and day care has influenced child care practices. 

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 27-04-14 10:52
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Page 1

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The Impact of Day Care 27/02/2014 17:33




Attachment ­ the emotional bond between two people, a two-way process. Leads to certain
behaviours, e.g. distress on separation and pleasure on reunion.
Signs of attachment
Seeking proximity to caregiver
Distress in separation
Joy on reunion

LEARNING THEORY
Classical Conditioning
Food (Unconditioned stimulus)…

Page 2

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The Impact of Day Care 27/02/2014 17:33




BOWLBY'S THEORY (evolutionary)
Attachment is an innate and biological process that has evolved because of its
survival value.
We are born with an innate drive to become attached to a caregiver.
Attachment must form in a sensitive period or not at all.
Attachment…

Page 3

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The Impact of Day Care 27/02/2014 17:33




Ainsworth Strange Situation
AIM ­ to classify children into different attachment groups
PROCEDURE
106 American middle class infants and mothers in a lab experiment.
In a playroom and observed every 15 seconds through a two way mirror.
8 main stages including being left…

Page 4

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The Impact of Day Care 27/02/2014 17:33




Effects of attachment type
Prior and Glaser
o Studied effects of different attachment types on future
behaviour
o Found securely attached infants showed less emotional
dependence.
o Insecure avoidant infants showed aggressive behaviour,
insecure resistant infant's showed anxiety and withdrawn
behaviour.
Hazen and…

Page 5

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The Impact of Day Care 27/02/2014 17:33




RESEARCH ­ Cultural Similarities
Tronick et al - Naturalistic observation in Zaire of the Efe tribe. Even though they live in a community
where they raise each other's children, they still slept with their own mothers, suggesting
attachment with the primary attachment figure.…

Page 6

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The Impact of Day Care 27/02/2014 17:33




Disruption of attachment ­ when a child has formed an attachment but for
some reason the attachment bonds are temporarily or permanently
interrupted.

ROBERTSON & ROBERTSON
Aim ­ to investigate the effects of disruption of attachment and how
important it is to maintain…

Page 7

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o In 1992, only 25% of children's hospitals allowed visitors, and
12% prohibited it all together.
o However, families are now encouraged to visit their children.
Validity
o High external validity because the films were a naturalistic
observation in a realistic setting and…

Page 8

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The Impact of Day Care 27/02/2014 17:33




Privation ­ the lack of having any attachments due to the failure to develop such
attachments during early life.

Rutter
Found long term consequences of privation are less severe if attachment can still
be formed at an early age.
Studied 100 Romanian orphans…

Page 9

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The Impact of Day Care 27/02/2014 17:33




Czech twins
o Spent first 7 years of their lives locked up by stepmother.
o Couldn't talk when first discovered.
o They were cared for by two loving sisters by the age of 14 after they were
discovered and had near normal intellectual…

Page 10

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The Impact of Day Care 27/02/2014 17:33




Day care ­ a form of temporary care not given by family members or someone well known to the
child, usually away from the home.
Day nurseries/Child-minding
High quality day care
Staff/child ratio means there are plenty of staff to spend time and…

Comments

Henry Leahy

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Fantastic resource, thank you!! :D

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