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Biology Revision

Biological Molecules

Risk factor - A factor that increases your chance of developing a disease

Metabolism - The sum total of all biochemical reactions taking place in the cells of an organism

Carbohydrates - Make up a group of molecules with C, H and O in the ration…

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Beta glucose

o Formed by many condensations of alpha glucose
Glycosidic bond between glucose subunits occurs between Carbon 1 and Carbon 4
Thus 1,4 glycosidic bond
Coil into a spring makes it compact
Iodine turns from yellow to black as it becomes trapped in these coil
o Energy…

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Proteins are important for growth, repair and metabolic activity

Amino Acid structure

Amino acids in plants

Nitrates in soil converted to amino groups
These are then bonded to organic groups from the products of photosynthesis

Amino acids in animals

Taken in through the diet
o Proteins digested to amino acids…

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Heating a protein increases the kinetic energy in the molecule
o Causes it vibrate
o Break the weak bonds
These are the Hydrogen and Ionic bonds
Tertiary structure unravels as more heat is applied
o This is denaturation

Shape of the protein

Globular protein
o Compact ball-shaped structure
Hydrophobic R…

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Condensation reactions between acid groups of two more fatty acids with the two remaining OH groups on the glycerol form a triglyceride molecule

In phospholipids instead of a third fatty acid a phosphate group is covalently bonded to the 3rd OH group
o The phosphate head is hydrophilic
o Hydrocarbon…

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o Place solution in a sample chamber between light and photoelectric cell in a small container called a cuvette
The more Benedict's test used up in the reaction the more light will be transmitted
Zero or calibrated device with a `blank' sample to reset 100% transmission and use a red…

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o Sugar molecule that makes up the nucleotides is ribose
o Nitrogenous base uracil instead of thymine
o Polynucleotide chain is usually single-stranded
o There are 3 forms of RNA
Messenger RNA
Strand complementary to one strand of a DNA molecule
o Template strand
Copy of the coding strand of…

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Building up of glycogen by catalysing the joining together of glucose molecules
Endothermic animals maintain internal body temperature
o By doing so enzymes function at near optimum temperature
Requires lots of energy - food
But can survive well on land and in water
Organisms that obtain their nutrients by consuming…

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The hydrogen and ionic bonds are due to the attraction between oppositely charged R groups on the amino acids
o Hydrogen ions interfere by attracting the negatively charged groups breaking that ionic bond
Increasing or decreasing pH changes the shape of the active site
Changes the rate of an enzyme…

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The outer layer called the epidermis layers of cells called keratinocytes, cytoplasm is replaced by a protein called keratin =
keratinisation. This keratinised layer effective barrier against pathogens.
o Another is mucous membranes, goblet cells and ciliated cells. Because we need to take in oxygen and nutrients from our food…


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