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Page 1

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


CELL STRUCTURE
CELL THEORY:
Structural and functional unit of all living things
New cells arise from already existing cells
Cells contain information that instructs growth. This information can be passed onto new cells.

MICROSCOPES:
There are two main types of microscopes:…

Page 2

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]




STAINING:
Used to have better visualisation of cells under a microscope
Used because some cell components are transparent
ACETIC ORCEIN- stains DNA dark red
GENETIAN VIOLET- stains bacterial cell walls
IODINE- stains starch granules
METHYLENE BLUE/EOSIN- used for light microscope
Specimen…

Page 3

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


Has receptor molecules that allows
it to respond to chemicals
(hormones)
separate cell contents from outside
the cell
separate cell components from the
cytoplasm
In cell recognition and signalling
To hold some components of
metabolic pathways in place
In regulating the…

Page 4

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


Vesicle Small fluid sac in Transports substances in and out cell
cytoplasm with Formed at Golgi apparatus, ER, cell
membrane surface membrane

Lysosome Round organelle Contains digestive enzymes to
surrounded by membrane break down materials
Can be used to digest invading…

Page 5

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


Lamella (thin, flat pieces
of thylakoids)
Vacuole Filled with cell sap Keeps plant supported, rigid and
turgid
produces enzymes to destroy
bacteria



PROTEIN PRODUCTION:
This is an example of "division
of labour".


1) DNA contains
instructions to make
proteins (e.g.
hormones)…

Page 6

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


Food production e.g. yoghurt
Vitamin K- digestion in mammalian intestines
Skin bacteria- help keep out harmful bacteria
Sewage treatment and recycling- uses bacteria to break down waste products



EUKARYOTES PROKARYOTES
Larger cells (2- 200 µm diameter) Smaller cells (less than 2…

Page 7

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


FLUID MOSAIC MODEL:
FLUID: Lipid bilayer that is constantly moving. Membrane is the consistency of olive oil at body
temperature
MOSAIC: Protein molecules that are embedded and span the bilayer
10 nm wide

MEMBRANES AND TEMPERATURE:
Enzymes and co-enzymes attached to…

Page 8

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


1) Cells communicate messages to each other
2) Cell releases a messenger molecule (hormone)
3) Then travels to another cell
4) Hormone is detected by cell because it binds to a
complementary receptor
5) E.g. cytokines

HORMONE RECEPTORS:
1) Proteins act…

Page 9

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


THICKNESS OF MEMBRANE: Thinner membrane- faster rate of diffusion (shorter the
distance particles have to travel)
SIZE OF MOLECULES: Smaller molecules diffuse quickly than larger ones
MOVEMENT
FACILITATED DIFFUSION:
This is when large or charged molecules can't diffuse directly through membrane…

Page 10

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]



WATER POTENTIAL- The measurement of tendency of water molecules to diffuse from one
place to another
Highest water potential of pure water = ZERO
As water potential DECREASES value becomes more NEGATIVE
Measurement of water potential is "kilopascals (kPa)"

HYPOTONIC: Less…

Comments

Naseem

Amazing notes. 

THANKS!

Joshua224

Brilliant 'package'!

Will surely pass this one on to those I know ;)

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