OCR AS Psychology - Core Studies Notes

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  • Created on: 16-05-13 21:53
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Thigpen & Cleckley ­ Aim: to provide psychological help to a 25 year old woman who was suffering from severe headaches and blackouts. Method- case
study, psychometric tests, interviews with EW's family. Results ­ EW had a IQ of 110 and EB had 104, EX and Jane's brain patterns were similar, EW was
reserved, depressed and EB was flirtatious, party-like, EEG results showed EB to be the most, Jane & EB were hard to distinguish from each other.
Rosenhan ­Aim: S1- to see if individuals who presented themselves in a psychiatric hospital would be diagnosed as insane. S2 ­ to see if tendency towards
diagnosing sane as insane could be reversed. S3 ­ to investigate patient-staff contact. Sample - S1: 8 psuedopatients, 5M 3F of various occupations +
occupations. S2:12 hospitals across 5 states in USA, one was a private hospital. Method- psuedop's took notes, collected data on the way hospital staff
interacted with patients.Results- length of time in hospital was between 7-52 days, mean was 19days, discharged with schizophrenia in remission.
Griffiths ­ Aim:to compare behaviour of RGs and NRGs. Sample-60 P's, 30Gs, (29M & 1F), 30NRGs (15M & 15F).Method-quasi exp, IV= RGs/NRGs, DVs=
qualitative ­ thinking aloud & perception of skill, quantitative-no. of plays, mins of play,end stake(winnings),no. of wins in session,win rate(time)-time
between wins,win rate(plays)- no . of plays between wins. Each P given £3 for 60 gambles on same machine,recordings of thinking aloud method
transcribed within 24hours,random allocation to thinking aloud/non thinking aloud condition Results ­ RGs-stayed on machine longer,had significantly higher
play rate,thinking aloud group of RG had a lower win rate than any other group,produced irrational verbalisations,used a variety of heuristics e.g. illusion of
control.NRGs-thinking aloud group of NRGs had slightly more wins than any other groups. Conclusions-RGs slightly more skilful. RGs believe they're more
skilful than they are. RGs made more irrational verbalisations demonstrating cognitive bias.
Maguire-Aim:to show that the hippocampus plays a role in spatial memory & navigation. Sample-16 right handed M London taxi drivers aged 32-62,with a
mean age of 44, all licensed taxi drivers for 1.5years. Control group: 50 R handed M aged 32-62 mean age of 44. Method-quasi exp, IV=taxi driver or not,
data collected by analysing MRI- (VBM) & pixel counting,data was correlated with the length of time taxi drivers had been licensed. Results-VBM-taxi
drivers had increased grey matter volume in the right & left hippocampus,difference found in the posterior hippocampus,control group had grey matter
volume in the anterior hippocampus compared to taxi drivers.Pixel counting-showed no significant difference in overall volume of hippocampi between two
groups .Correlations-significant positive correlation between the volume of the right posterior hippocampus & length of time as taxi driver,negative

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correlation between size of the anterior hippocampus & time as taxi driver. Results suggest the hippocampus shows `plasticity' that is that it's volume
increases with navigational exp.
Sperry-Aim:to study the psychological effects of hemisphere disconnection in split brain patients.Sample-11 Ps who had undergone radical surgery to
server their corpus callosum.…read more

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Piliavin-Aim-to investigate if lame victim received more help thank drunk,which race received more help(black or white)and speed of helping,race and
gender of helper.Sample-4450 M&F on a New York subway,45%-black,55% white,opp sampling.Method-field exp,observation on a NY subway,four teams
of four people two observers. victim&model, observers collected 103 trials,NY subway between 11am&3pm on weekdays,two trains were used,victim
staggered forward and collapsed after 70 seconds from departing, IV-black/white victim, drunk/lame victim,early/late model,no. of bystanders present in
each journey.…read more

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the aggressive condition towards the bobo doll, in non aggressive the model played quietly. 2-Mild aggression arousal where children were shown
attractive toys, after two minutes of playing with the toys the child was told that these toys were reserved for other children. 3- children put in a room and
told they could play with toys, experimenter was in the room, non aggressive toys were; tea set, crayons and plastic animals, aggressive toys were; mallet,
bobo doll, dart guns.…read more

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differences found.Kanzi and Mulika used the lexigrams more specifically, Kanzi and Mulika understood more English words.Kanzi was able to refer to
requests involving others. Pygmy chimps were better at learning thn common chimps.
Baron-Cohen-Aim:to see if high functioning autistic adults would be impaired on the eyes task. Sample-Three groups-group 1:16Ps,13M,3F with autism
who had a mean IQ of105.…read more


Suhel Haque

Well done 



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