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Cold environments


Erosional landforms


Arm chair shaped hollow with a steep back wall and a lake known as a tarn found at the
Snow accumulates and lasts a whole summer season
The snow becomes more compact and forms neve/firn
Freeze thaw weathering takes place at the back…

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When many a found in one place they are referred to as `swarms'
Drumlins have a blunt end `stoss' and tapered end `lee'
Drumlins form sub glacier at the lower sections of the glacier
When the glacier passes over an obstacle the ice becomes overloaded with lodgement till
and its…

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Periglacial Landforms

Permafrost is permenantly frozen ground, it is the layers below the surfaceee that remains frzen
for at least two years
Temperatures must therefore be extremely cold for its formation
There is some melting up to 3m below the surface, this is the active layer
There are three…

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Ice lens forms beneath the dome and increases in size due to the upward movement of
additional water under pressure
Ice lens causes the doming at the surface and cracks to appear within the formation

Solifluction lobes:

Solifluction occurs in warmer seasons where summer thaw of the active layer releases…

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Basal sliding
Overlying pressure sub glacier causes ice to melt when it reaches its pressure melting
point and so produces melt water
Melt water lubricates the base of the glacier and the bedrock
Subsequent movement causes friction enhancing melting further
This causes the glacier to move more rapidly as it…


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