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David Crystal
Reasons why we communicate:
· To communicate facts, ideas, opinions
· Express emotions
· To support social interaction
· Record facts
· To give life a sense of shape and order
· Instrument of thought
· Create identity
· Sheer enjoyment of making sound…read more

Slide 3

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Frameworks
· Lexis
· Semantics
· Phonology
· Pragmatics
· Discourse
· Graphology
Meta language ­ language we use to talk about language.
Words such as forecast, sunny, stormy, clear, miserable,
thunder and hail are described as a lexical set. A lexical
set are words relating to the same genre.…read more

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Useful Terms
· Synonymy = Same or similar ­
Synonyms are different words with almost
identical or similar meanings
· Antonymy = opposite ­
Antonyms are words opposite in meaning
to another (e.g., bad and good).
· Hyponymy = hierarchy in language ­
Chair is higher then furniture because
chair is more specific…read more

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Sentences
· Making a sentence you need:
- Object
- Subject
- Verb
· In a sentence there can be:
· Nouns, e.g. chair, cupboard, cat
· Verb, e.g. to run, to jump, to fly
· Adjective, e.g. yellow, round, bright
· Adverbs ­ words that describe a verb, e.g. quickly, lazily, calmly
· Determiner, e.g. the, a
· Preposition, e.g. under, above
· Conjunction, e.g. because, but
· Pronoun, e.g. he, she…read more

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Types of Nouns
· Concrete ­ They are physical, such as a
chair or a table
· Abstract ­ These are nouns you can't see,
love, thoughts, hatred
· Proper ­ These are names, things with a
capital letters, e.g. Paris
· Common ­ nouns that aren't specific, such
as house, building, they do not have a
capital letter…read more

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