Mark Sebba
found that language of teenagers in london is affected by the prevalent use of non standard forms of London Jamaican.
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the new dialect influenced by the ethnic mix in London
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Bradford case study
Bradford teenagers language is affected by Punjabi heritage
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blend of English and Asian languages that it is common for UK speakers of asian ethnicity to have different words, expressions and aspects of accent from white British speakers
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Penelope Eckert
teenagers use taboo and non standard forms to create a distinctive sociolect for themselves and be different from other ages
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use of 'like' and suggested that its use changes through states of childhood and teenage years
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multiple negation and other non-standard features were typical of teenagers' messages.
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research into instagram messages, noted that with teenagers, the most common uses of technology and social media, their language varies as a result
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the group that imitated the fishermen most in exaggerating vowel sounds was young men
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Transcripts from norwich and sunderland speakers
suggests that age and region might cause regional dialect and accent to be stronger amongst under members of communities with little immigration- vowel sounds, irregular prepositions, absence of plural marking.
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Lakoff, Jeperson and Swacker
women and men speak differently because they are different, language use reflects this.
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Zimmerman and west
mixed sex conversations and men interrupted more themes than women. 98% interruptions were men.
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Pamela Fishman
men more dominant. Women use questions as conversational labour.
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Deborah Tannen
status v support. independence v intimacy. advice v understanding. information v feelings. orders v proposals. conflict v compromise.
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Deborah Cameron
looks at difference and argues that the way men and women socialise is at the heart of language diversity. diversity exists because of the way that we project an identity for ourselves
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Milton Keynes study, new dialect is being formed mainly from young girls. Dialect levelling is taking place.
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Trudgill - Norwich study
Men seek covert prestige and women seek overt prestige. Men claim they use more standard forms than women. Women think they use more standard forms than they actually do. End-consonant deletion in words like walkin' runnin' more typical in lower clas
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Malcolm Petyets Bradford study
h-dropping was more common in the speech of lower class residents. High social groups used hyper correction.
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Milroys Belfast study
non-standard forms of language were reinforced more strongly in working class communities where residents lived in more closed networks.
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Almut Koester's language and work principles.
Goal orientation, turn taking rules or restrictions, structure, allowable contributions, asymmetrical, spoken= transactional
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O Barr and Atkins
situational- specific power. Occupation affords people power irrespective of other social factors e.g. gender, ethnicity and age. e.g. courtrooms
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Howard Giles
Particular accents were perceived more intelligent, attractive, honest. Accommodation theory, accommodate to the other person- convergence
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Alan Bell
Diverge away from the person talking
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Cheshire reading study 1982
men and young boys tendency to converge on non standard forms
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Jeperson 1922
100 words, mens words related to animal kingdom, women related to fabrics and food.
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Swacker 1975
Men and women given pictures, men spoke 3 times longer then women
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the new dialect influenced by the ethnic mix in London

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Bradford case study


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Penelope Eckert


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