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A distinctive manner of pronunciation that marks a regional or social identity.

Adjacency pairs
A term relating to the structure of spoken language, indicating a sequence of utterances that form
a recognizable structure. Adjacency pairs follow each other, are produced by different speakers,
have a…

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Elongation of sound
A feature of pronunciation by which a sound is drawn out. Elongation of sound can signal that a
speaker is unsure about, or are emphasizing what they are saying, or are thinking about what to say
next. Marked in transcripts by a series of colons. For example:…

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Non-fluency features
These are common features of conversation which mark its spontaneous nature and structure.
Fillers, false starts,repetition, hesitation and interruption are all non-fluency features.

Non-standard English
Any variety of language use that does not conform to the standard, prestige English: the form of
English accepted as the norm by…

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The form of English considered to be accepted as the norm in society and used as the medium of
government, education, law etc. Language that differs from this standard is knwon as

Stealing the floor/ stealing a turn
This occurs when a participant cuts in to a conversation when…


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