Arguments for the Existence of God revision

Revision sheet - Argument from Design (Teleological Argument), Cosmological Argument (Aquinas' First Cause), Ontological Argument (Anselm)

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The Argument From Design/Teleological Argument
In the natural world everything seems to have been created for a purpose, it is
suited to the function it performs, i.e. everything seems to have been designed.
Example of the Human Eye - seems too intricate to have been randomly created.
William Paley and Watch Analogy ­ Watch has been designed Everything is
designed The universe is so complex it must need the highest type of designer
i.e. GOD. (Argument from an effect to its cause)
A Posteriori argument
Argument from ANALOGY (Watch and Universe), i.e. relying on principle that if two
things are similar is some respects they will likely be similar in others.
It is hard to deny the complexity of the world, things do seem to have been
It seems unlikely that this complexity could have been created by random events.
It assumes that there is a connection between an object that we know has been
designed (the watch) and something infinitely complex which we do not know for
certain has been designed (the universe), if the analogy is weak/vague then this
makes the conclusions of the argument weak/vague
Evolution and Natural Selection seem to give a self-explanatory solution to the
illusion of design in the world, without the notion of a Deity at all. However...
evolution does not disprove God's existence, but rather renders it unnecessary.
Although some Christians would argue that God could have created evolution, it
seems an unsatisfactory answer as natural selection is brutal in its `succeed or die'
nature, and this doesn't seem to fit in with God's supposed omnibenevolence
Doesn't necessarily lead to monotheism, no logical connection between universe's
design and only one God.
Doesn't necessarily fit in with God's omnipotence ­ there are faults in the world, e.g.
genetic mutations.
The Anthropic Principle (F. R. Tennant)

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The chance of the world turning out to be conducive to human survival and development
was so tiny that that we can conclude that the world must have been designed. God must
have controlled the physical conditions of the universe, and fine-tuned them to allow us
to evolve.
The Lottery Objection: it is statistically very unlikely that you would win the lottery,
however, if you did, this would not show more than your good luck.…read more

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It is self-contradictory, says that everything has a cause but God doesn't have a
cause. Supporters could counter-argue this by saying that what is really meant is that
everything except God has a cause, but then why should it stop at God instead of
somewhere else?
Why no infinite regress? We can imagine infinite regress in the opposite direction,
i.e. from now towards the future, so why not in the other direction?
Hume ­ the argument assumes too much, the inference goes beyond the evidence.…read more

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Gives faith a rational basis, i.e. if you accept the first premise (God is the most
perfect Being imaginable) then it is logical and almost common sense to accept the
A Priori argument avoids the problems of needing evidence that could change or be
falsified in the future.…read more


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