Teleological argument

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  • Teleological argument
    • Dawkins
      • There is no designer - natural selection and evolution
      • Because the world has changed over time, the current world could not have been designed and the world cannot be poerfect
      • Even if it looks complex, it is not necessarily designed
    • Keith Ward
      • World is part of such a delicate balance with conditions so improbable that it must have been designed
      • Darwin explains how organisms have developed but not why the laws of nature are true
      • Darwin relies on the predictaability of nature, however there are many possibilities that the current nature could change - must rely on God who determines nature
      • Darwin's theory does not disprove the design argument - the set of parameters must be perfect for evolution to exist
    • William Paley
      • watch analogy
        • Both the world and the watch are not always perfect - does not disprove its designer
        • Only the watchmaker can understand the principles behind how it is made
      • The maker existed at some time or some place
      • Not necessary to understand how it was made, but instead to understand it was designed
      • It is implausible to believe that something so complex is due to chance
      • Rejects that it is our minds which makes us interpret the world in this way
      • Types of design
        • Design qua regularity: the ordered movements of planets
        • Design qua purpose: the delicate structure of the eye to achieve sight
      • Strengths
        • Analogy makes it clear and easy to understand
      • Weaknesses
        • Does not address why we need to understand how it was made
        • Cannot address directly to modern counter arguments like evolution
    • F.R. Tennant
      • Aesthetic  argument
      • Anthropic principle
        • Strong principle
          • Life conditions are intrinsically present in the universe - life was inevitable
          • This is the principle Tenant adopts
        • Weak principle
          • Conditions for life happen to have occured
          • There is order and movement to the universe which must have a driving force, i.e. God
          • Implies a God may have existed initially but does not necessarily exist now
        • Life exists because of particular features of the universe which could not have come about randomly
      • Both science and God's existence can be true - the Big Bang could be caused by God
      • Humans are not just results of evolution, our purpose is not just survival and reproduction we are something more.
      • Weaknesses
        • Flawed logic
          • Having a goal doesn't mean that God has created the goal
    • Aquinas
      • Arrow analogy
        • If you see an arrow flying through the air. you conclude that it has been shot by someone and for a purpose
          • Design qua purpose: the delicate structure of the eye to achieve sight
      • Strengths
        • Reasoned argument compared to an unsupported faith
          • Inductive reasoning - from the particular to the general
        • Uses real world examples
        • Simple and easily comprehended
          • Applicable to everyone
        • Answers main teleological questions
      • Fifth of Aquinas' Ways
        • Innate objects, like planets, are perfectly ordered but do not have the intellect to do so themselves. Therefore  something else must have designed their perfection.
      • Weaknesses
        • Premise of arrow analogy relies on the universe being goal orientated
    • Richard Swinburne
      • Order is aesthetic
        • We find find the world beautiful because it was made for us
        • The universe is beautiful due to its order which comes from its designer
      • Probability Argument
        • The amount of factors that are perfect imply that there must be a desihgner
        • In nature and evolution so much could have gone wrong, yet it hasn't
      • Providential
        • The universe is made for us
        • It is not a vacuum
        • The universe seems like such an ideal place for us to live that it must have been designed
      • Weaknesses
        • Relies on our belief that the universe is perfect
      • Weakness
        • Assumes evolution cannot take place without God
    • Mill
      • Nature is cruel
      • How could any benevolent designer design such a thing in which rape, murder, natural disasters etc, occur?
    • Does not explain the designer of God or why God does not have a designer.

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