IB Philosophy of Religion: Cosmological argument

Illustrating some of the main philosophers and theories of the cosmological argument - more will be added soon 

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • The cosmological argument
    • Aquninas
      • Universe is in a constant state of flux
      • Causes come before their effects
        • But this concept of cause and effect cannot regress into infinity
      • Everything that moves has a mover
    • Weaknesses
      • If everything in existence has a cause, what is the cause of God
        • If he is static then he can do nothing so cannot cause. If he is dynamic he must be moving, which implies he has a mover
      • God must either be static or dynamic.
        • If he is static then he can do nothing so cannot cause. If he is dynamic he must be moving, which implies he has a mover
      • In the Islamic version, the Kalam cause argument, there is no reference to God. It could be used to justify numerous arguments, including scientific theories
      • Universe may be infinite with no time of nothingness
    • The Kalam argument
      • When there are two equally possible events (the universe existing or not existing ) something has to will one of the possibilities into existence
      • Weaknesses
        • Relies on infinity not existing
          • Infinite numbers
          • Circles have no end
        • Must the cause be God?
    • William Lane Craig
      • Universe cannot be infinite as you cannot add to an infinite amount
        • The past is a succession of events added to each other
          • Potential infinity
            • Like the future - events are constantly being added to the sum total
      • Actual infinity
        • A mathematical concept from set theory, referring to infinite numbers as part of a set
      • The world could not have come about by random forces of nature because before the universe began there were no natural laws
        • The world must have come about through personal choice
        • There must have been a personal being who freely chose to bring the universe into existence
      • Strengths
        • logical yet maintains adequate detail
        • well reasoned and inclusive of all religions
        • alludes to science which appeals to many people. Making it a good counter argument
    • Ed Miller
      • An adaption of the Kalam argument centered on time
        • If the universe is infinite with an infinite number of days then we would not reach today
          • Based on the idea that today is the end of an infinite series of days
          • Why should today be assumed to be the end of the series, is it not in the middle of the series.
            • Today could therefore exist , as though the number scale is infinite we still have numbers in the middle of this scale...1, 99, 364, 9889676
      • Weaknesses
        • Seems to be greater leaps in logic than other more compelling causation arguments
          • Why should today be assumed to be the end of the series, is it not in the middle of the series.
            • Today could therefore exist , as though the number scale is infinite we still have numbers in the middle of this scale...1, 99, 364, 9889676
    • Fredrick Copleston
      • The universe is the sum of all things that exist, these things are contingent meaning that they rely on other things to bring them into existence
        • The analogy of society could be used- society does not exist without the people within it
      • The cause of the universe must be external to the universe itself
        • A self causing , necessary being
    • Russell
      • The universe is just there and that's all
        • Brute fact
        • Seems as unsatisfactory as an unjustified argument of only God breaking the law of cause and effect
      • Concept of cause cannot be applied to the total
      • He seems to lack curiosity into this matter
        • Unlike his usual inquisitive and scientific approach
    • David Hume
      • Argued against the a first cause of the universe
      • Everything within the universe having a cause does not necessarily mean the universe itself has a cause
    • John L Mackie
      • Responded to criticisms of Aquinas' argument
      • Defended the idea that infinite regression cannot exist
      • It is illogical to have an infinite number of train carriages as there must be a driver
    • Anthony Kenny
      • Based on Newton's first law of motion
        • A body's velocity would remain unchanged unless some other force acted upon it
      • Tried to disprove Aquinas
      • Believed a body could only be in one of two states stationary or moving at a constant rate - without an external force
      • Weaknesses
        • The universe is not moving at a constant rate, most scientists currently belive that it is decelerating
          • If Newton's Law was maintained then would this not show that there was an external force
          • Couldn't this external force be the very God Kenny was trying to disprove
        • Do the laws of logic and science break down
          • If cause and effect cannot be applied to the universe then why can Newton's law?
    • Gottfried Leibniz
      • Why is there something rather than nothing?
      • The argument from sufficient reason
        • There must be an ultimate reason for the world's existence
        • The reason for the world must be external to it
        • There must be a being that can create the world's existence
          • Must necessarily exist
          • The is what is called God

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Philosophy resources:

See all Philosophy resources »See all Ideas of gods resources »