AQA C2 Chemistry

What are ionic compounds?
Giant structures of ions, held together by strong forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions that act in all directions.
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What do ionic compounds have?
High melting and boiling points.
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What is an ionic bond?
A transfer of electrons from one atom to the other, between a metal and a non-metal.
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What are alkali metals?
They are atoms with 1 electron in their outermost shell and react with non-metal elements to form ionic compounds, where the metal ion has a single positive charge.
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What are halogens?
They are atoms which have 7 electrons in their outermost shell and react with alkali metals to form ionic compounds, where the halide ions have a single negative charge.
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What is a mixture?
2 or more elements or compounds that aren't chemically combined.
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What is a compound?
When 2 or more elements are chemically joined together.
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Atoms can form chemical bonds by...
Sharing electrons (COVALENT) and gaining or losing electrons (IONIC).
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What is a covalent bond?
A strong bond formed when pairs of electrons are shared between non-metals.
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What are the properties of Diamond?
It is a form of Carbon, it has a giant, rigid covalent structure, each Carbon atom has 4 covalent bonds with other Carbon atoms and it is a hard substance.
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What are the properties of Graphite?
It is a form of Carbon, it has a giant, covalent structure, each Carbon atom forms 3 covalent bonds with other Carbon atoms in a layered structure and the layers can slide past each other, making it soft and slippery.
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What is an alloy?
A mixture that contains a metal and at least 1 other element and is usually stronger and harder than pure metal.
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What are thermo-softening polymers?
They consist of individual polymer chains that are tangled together and there are weak intermolecular forces between all of the polymer chains which helps to explain its properties.
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What are thermo-setting polymers?
They consist of polymer chains that are joined together by cross-links between them and they don't melt when they are heated.
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What are nanoparticles?
They are tiny, tiny particles that can combine to form structures called nanostructures.
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What are nanostructures?
They can be manipulated so materials can be developed that have new and specific properties.
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What is the mass number?
The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
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What is the atomic number?
The number of protons in the atom.
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How do you find the number of neutrons?
The mass number - the atomic number
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What are isotopes?
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and have the same atomic number but a different mass number.
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What is the relative atomic mass?
It is found on the periodic table and it is the larger number shown for each element.
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What is the formula for calculating percentage mass?
Relative mass of element in the compound / Relative formula mass of compound, multiplied by 100
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What is a mole?
A measure of the number of particles contained in a substance.
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What is the formula for moles?
Moles = Mass / RFM
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What is the formula for percentage yield?
Percentage yield = yield from reaction / maximum theoretical yield x 100
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What are 4 important factors that affect the rate of reaction?
Temperature, Concentration, Surface Area and Use of a Catalyst.
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What are exothermic reactions?
They are accompanied by a temperature rise and they transfer heat energy to the surroundings (give out heat).
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What are endothermic reactions?
They are accompanied by a fall in temperature and heat energy is transferred from the surroundings (take in heat).
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What are indicators?
Dyes that change colour depending on whether they are in acidic or alkaline solutions.
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What is litmus?
An indicator that changes colour from red to blue or vice versa.
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What is a universal indicator?
A mixture of dyes that show a range of colours to indicate how acidic or alkaline a substance is.
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What is electrolysis?
The breaking down of a compound containing ions into its elements using an electrical current. The substance being broken down is called the electrolyte.
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What are ionic substances?
Chemical compounds that allow an electric current to flow through them when they are molten or dissolved in water.
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In the electrolysis of Copper Chloride Solution, the simple substances released are...
Copper at the negative electrode and Chlorine gas at the positive electrode.
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What is reduction?
When positively charged ions gain electrons at the negative electrode.
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What is oxidation?
When negatively charged ions lose electrons at the positive electrode.
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What is a redox reaction?
A chemical reaction where both reduction and oxidation occur.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do ionic compounds have?

Back

High melting and boiling points.

Card 3

Front

What is an ionic bond?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are alkali metals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are halogens?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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