AQA Further Additional Chemistry

Describe Newlands Periodic Table
Used law of octaves, arranged in order of atomic mass, similarities in every 8th element. It only worked for first few elements and he didn't leave gaps for undiscovered elements
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Describe Mendeleevs Periodic Table
Left gaps for undiscovered elements, Arranged in periodic way, Predicted properties of undiscovered elements
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Describe the Modern Periodic Table
Elements are arranged in periodic way, periods show amount of electrons are in their outer shells
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When were subatomic particles discovered?
In the 20th century
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What are the properties of Alkali Metals?
low density, low melting and boiling points and they become more reactive as they go down the group
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Why do Alkali Metals get more reactive as you go down the group?
because the pull from the nucleus is weaker on the electrons on the outer shell so it's easier to lose an electron
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What happens when an alkali metal reacts with water?
It forms a metal hydroxide and hydrogen
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What happens when an alkali metal reacts with a non-metal?
It forms a ionic compound that is a white solid that dissolves in water
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Why are alkali metals stored in water?
because they're extremely reactive
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What happens if a metal hydroxide is dissolved in water?
an alkaline solution is produced which can be identified using universal indicator
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What are the properties of Group 7 elements?
become less reactive as you go down the group, exists as molecules made up of pairs of atoms, melting and boiling points increase as you go down the group
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Why do Group 7 elements find it hard to gain electrons?
They become less reactive as you go down the group as the pull from the nucleus is weaker on electrons furthest from it
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What happens when Group 7 elements react with non-metals?
They form molecular compounds. A more reactive halogen will displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt
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What is the product of Halogens reacting with metals?
They form ionic salts
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What are transition metals like in comparison to alkali metals?
less reactive, higher melting points, higher densities
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State the properties of Transition Metals
they're: hard, malleable, good conductors, can be used as catalysts, form coloured compounds, have ions with different charges
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How can we improve the taste and quality of drinking water?
Pass it through a filter of carbon, silver and iron exchange resin
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How can pure water be produced?
Through distillation. Water containing no dissolved substances can be boiled to steam, cooled and condensed but this is a very expensive process
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Why is water processed to be drinkable?
So that we reach low levels of microorganisms and salts so that the water is safe to drink
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How should we produce drinkable water?
Passed through a filter bed to remove any solid particles, add chlorine gas to kill any harmful microorganisms and in some cases add fluoride to prevent tooth decay
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What happens when Soft Water reacts with soap?
It forms a lather
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How does hard water pick up calcium and magnesium ions?
By flowing through rocky areas in upland
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What happens when hard water reacts with soap?
A scum is formed
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What are the advantages of hard water?
contains calcium which strengthens bones and teeth, helps reduce risk of heart disease, scale build up prevents poisonous salts from getting into water and some people prefer the taste
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What are the disadvantages of hard water?
causes a build up of scale which reduces efficiency of electrical appliances, more soap has to be bought
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What ions does temporary hard water contain?
hydrogen carbonate ions that decompose upon heating to form carbonate ions that react with the calcium and magnesium ions in the water to form precipitates
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How can hydrogen carbonate ions be removed from hard water?
By an ion exchange column
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Explain how an ion exchange column works
Hard water is poured in and the resin beads inside the column contain sodium which react with the calcium and magnesium ions and remove it from the water so that when the water comes out the bottom of the column it comes out as soft water
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How can temporary hard water be softened?
by boiling
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Calorie
energy required to heat 1g of water by one degree
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Give another use of calorimetry besides measuring the amount of energy released
can be used to look at reactions of solids with water or neutralisation reactions
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What are the potential errors of calorimetry?
heat is lost to surroundings, water should be stirred, not all food or fuel is burnt
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Describe the method of calorimetry for food
1) take food sample and burn it, 2)make sure enough heat goes to the water, 3) measure temperature rise by thermometer
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Describe the method of burning fuel
1) weigh initial mass, 2) light the fuel under the water, 3) wait till the thermometer goes up a specific amount of temperature, 4) weigh the final mass
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Does an endothermic energy level diagram go from low to high or from high to low?
from low to high
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Describe an endothermic reaction
more energy is required to break the bonds than make the bonds, absorbs energy from surroundings
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When calculating the energy transferred what does a negative number show?
an exothermic reaction
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Describe an exothermic reaction energy level diagram
goes from high to low
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Describe an exothermic reaction
more energy is required to make the bond than break the bond, energy is released
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Activation Energy
minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction
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What does a catalyst do to a reaction
Lowers the activation energy so speeds up the reaction whilst not being used up in the process
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What does hydrogen as a fuel give off?
water vapour
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How is hydrogen produced by fuel cells?
Chemical reaction inside cell, produces water which produces steam producing electricity
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How could we use hydrogen in a combustion engine?
it's stored in tanks under high pressure to such degrees that it sometimes has to be liquified but it's an expensive process
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What are the positives of hydrogen as a fuel?
less pollutants, less need for fossil fuels
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What are the disadvantages of hydrogen as a fuel?
it's hard to produce, it's expensive and it's flammable
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe Mendeleevs Periodic Table

Back

Left gaps for undiscovered elements, Arranged in periodic way, Predicted properties of undiscovered elements

Card 3

Front

Describe the Modern Periodic Table

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When were subatomic particles discovered?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the properties of Alkali Metals?

Back

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