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Calcium Carbonate-> Calcium Oxide+ Carbon Dioxide
CaCo3 -> CaO + CO2
The thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate makes calcium oxide
and carbon dioxide. Magnesium, Copper, Zinc and Sodium Carbonate all
act in the same way.
Calcium Carbonate+ Sulfuric acid -> calcium sulfate + Carbon Dixoide + Water
CaCo3 + H2SO4 -> CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O
This means limestone can be damaged by acid rain…read more

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Calcium Oxide + Water -> calcium hydroxide
CaO + H2O -> Ca(OH)2
Calcium Hydroxide is an alkaline which can be used to neutralise acidic fields
Calcium Hydroxide + Carbon Dioxide -> Calcium Carbonate + Water
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 -> CaCO3 + H2O
This is the test for carbonates…read more

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Advantages Disadvantages
Limestone Provides people with Quarrying processes
things they want e.g. means a lot of dust and
Houses and roads noise
Limestone makes....
1. Cement- powdered Neutralises acidic soils Quarrying destroys
limestone is heated in a habitats
kiln with powdered clay Neutralises sulfur dioxide It needs to be transported
2. Mortar- Cement can be away which causes more
mixed with sand and pollution and noise
water. This sticks bricks
together Creates jobs Waste materials produce
3. Concrete- sand and unsightly tips
aggregate (water and Landscaping and Cement factories make a
gravel) restoration after quarrying lot of dust
is finished
Limestone is cheap and Energy needs to be use
widely available which comes from fossil
It looks attractive
Doesn't rot…read more

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Extracting Metals
Reduction with carbon
Metal Ore A metal higher than carbon requires
A rock which contains enough electrolysis. Below carbon means reduction
metal to make it worthwhile with carbon e,g, iron oxide is reduced in an
extracting metal from iron furnace to make iron. This is because
carbon can only take oxygen away from
metals that are less reactive than carbon
Electrolysis itself.
Electrolysis is a lot more expensive
as it requires more energy.
Electrolysis is breaking down Purifying Copper with Electrolysis
substances using electricity. It The copper ore is heated in a furnace. This is
requires a liquid called electrolyte. called smelting. The copper is impure so it
The free ions in the electrolyte doesn't conduct electricity. By purifying it, it will
conduct electricity. Electrons are conduct electricity. Electrons are taken from the
taken away by the anode and given copper atom by the anode to make it a copper
by the cathode ion. The cathode gives the ion electrons to
make it back into atom. The impurities from as
sludge at the anode and the pure copper forms
are the cathode.…read more

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Extracting Metals
The more reactive metal displaces the less reactive metal in a solution
e.g copper sulfate + iron -> iron sulfate + copper
Bioleaching Phytomining
This uses bacteria to separate copper Involves growing plants in copper
from copper sulfide. The bacteria get rich soils. The plant can't use it so it
energy from the bond between copper builds up in the leaves. The plant is
and sulfate, separating copper from its harvested, dried and burned in a
ore in the process. The leachate furnace. The copper can be collected
(solution produced) contains copper in the ash.
which can be extracted…read more

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