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Covalent bonding:
Between nonmetals. Atoms share electrons to gain full outer shells.
Diamond Diamond has a giant covalent structure. Each carbon atom within
the structure is covalently bonded with four of its neighbours in a rigid covalent
lattice. Silicone dioxide is similar to this.
Bonding in metals:
The atoms, or ions, in metals are arranged in regular layers. Electrons hold the
positive ions in metals together from the outer shell of each metal atom. These
electrons are free to move throughout the metal lattice.…read more

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Masses of atoms and moles:
Relative atomic massInstead of using the actual mass of an atom, we take
it's mass number and take this as the mass e.g.
We can then use these to work out the relative formula mass e.g.
NaCl= 23+35.5 = 58.…read more

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N2 + 3H2 2NH3
Rates of reactions:
The rates of a reaction can be affected by four main factors:
Surface area
Catalyst (reducing the activation energy)
Surface area:
If the reactant is in one large piece, only the outside of it is in contact with the
solution, so reactions are slower. With smaller pieces, they are completely
surrounded by the solution, and the rate is increases.
When we heat up the reaction, energy is transferred to the particles, making
them move faster.…read more

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Exothermic and endothermic reactions:
Whenever chemical reactions take place energy is involved. That's because
energy is transferred as chemical bonds are broken and formed:
Exothermic reactions:
When energy is transferred from the reacting substance
to the surrounding environment, it is an exothermic
reaction. We can tell this if the temperature rises in the
surroundings. Examples include:
Burning fuels
Endothermic reactions:
When energy is transferred to the reacting substance from
the surrounding environment, it is an endothermic reaction.…read more

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If the reaction produces a larger If the reaction produces a
volume of gases... smaller volume of gases...…read more

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