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Atomic Structure:

Ionic Bonding:
Ionic compounds are held together by strong forces between the oppositely
charged ions. Atoms can lose or gain electrons in order to get a full outer shell. +
means lose, means gain. This happens between metal and nonmetal ions.

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Covalent bonding:
Between nonmetals. Atoms share electrons to gain full outer shells.

Diamond Diamond has a giant covalent structure. Each carbon atom within
the structure is covalently bonded with four of its neighbours in a rigid covalent
lattice. Silicone dioxide is similar to this.

Bonding in metals:
The atoms,…

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Masses of atoms and moles:
Relative atomic massInstead of using the actual mass of an atom, we take
it's mass number and take this as the mass e.g.
We can then use these to work out the relative formula mass e.g.
NaCl= 23+35.5 = 58.5
H2O= 1+1+16=…

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N2 + 3H2 2NH3

Rates of reactions:
The rates of a reaction can be affected by four main factors:
Surface area
Catalyst (reducing the activation energy)

Surface area:
If the reactant is in one large piece, only the outside of it is in contact with the
solution, so…

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Exothermic and endothermic reactions:
Whenever chemical reactions take place energy is involved. That's because
energy is transferred as chemical bonds are broken and formed:
Exothermic reactions:
When energy is transferred from the reacting substance
to the surrounding environment, it is an exothermic
reaction. We can tell this if the temperature…

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If the reaction produces a larger If the reaction produces a
volume of gases... smaller volume of gases...
An increase in pressure decreases the An increase in pressure increases the
yield of the reaction, so the amount of yield of the reaction, so the amount of
product formed is lower…

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If water is present in the solution, the situation is made more complicated
because water contains ions. The rule for working out what will happen is that the
less reactive element will usually be formed.

Purifying copper:
A bar of impure copper is used as the anode, with a thin…


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