Acids and Alkalis
- When they dissolve into water they form H+ ions.
- Release H+ ions which are protons
- Proton Donors
- Stronger acid will have an increasing concentration of H+ ions and will be completely ionised. Example
- Sulfuric Acid H2 SO4
- Nitric Acid HNO3
- Hydrochloric Acid HCl
- Weak Acids are partially ionised or not fully dissociated.
- Citric Acid
- Ethanoic Acid
- Carbonic Acid
- When they dissolve in water they form OH- ions
- Accept H+ ions which are protons
- Proton Acceptors
- Stronger Alkalis will have an increasing concentration of OH- ions and will be completely ionised. Examples :
- Potassium Hydroxide KOH
- Sodium Hydroxide NaOH
- Weak Alkalis will be partially ionised or not fully dissociated
- Ammonia Solution
1 of 5
- They are used to find out concentrations.
- They allow you to find teh exact amount of acid needed to neutralise an amount of alkali.
- The END POINT is the point in the acid and the alkali have neutralised completely.
- Strong Alkali + Strong Acid = Any indicator
- Strong Alkali + Weak Acid = Phenophthalein
- Weak Alkali + Strong Acid = Methyl Orange
- Measure out 25 cm* of Acid or alkali in a pipette ( used to measure out a fixed volume of solution) and empty it out in a concial flask
- Put the suitable Indicator in the Flask
- Put the other reactant (acid/alkali) in the burette ( used to measure the volume of solution added)
- Drip the liquid from the burette slowly as you are nearing a colour change
- record the burette volume when the colour change occurs (END POINT)
- Repeat it three time and get average
2 of 5
Exothermic Reaction -
- Gives out heat ... X = Exit
- Temperature increases
- More bonds made than bonds broken
- More chemical energy in the reactants than the products as energy is released
- Neutralisation reaction between Acid and Alkali
- Reaction between calcium oxide and water
Endothermic Reaction -
- Takes in heat .. En = In
- More enerygy is in the product than in the reactants as energy has been taken in.
- Reaction between Ethanoic Acid and Sodium Carbonate
- Thermal Decomposition of limestone in a blast furnace
3 of 5
- the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a certain amount of solvent
- Ionic compounds are soluble but covalent are insoluble
- to increase solubility in gases ..
- temp decrease
- pressure incresae
- to increase the solubility in liquids
- temp increase
- A saturated solution is where a solute can not dissolve even more than it has dissolved now
4 of 5
- permenant will include
5 of 5