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EARLY PERIODIC TABLE
John Dalton:
Arranged the elements in order of their mass.
Published a table of elements in a book, 1808.

John Newlands:
Law of octaves ­ every 8th element had similar properties.
Produced a table of his octaves ­ several mistakes
Thought all elements had been found.
Knew…

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PROPERTIES OF GROUP 1 METALS
Very reactive
Very low density
Very soft
Shiny when first cut, then go dull after reacting with oxygen

As you go down the group, the elements get more reactive. There is
just 1 electron in the outer shell. The outer electron gets further away
from…

Page 3

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PROPERTIES OF HALOGENS
Low melting and boiling points
Poor heat and electrical conductors
All look different
As you go down the group, the elements get less reactive. There are 7 electrons in the outer
shell. All of these elements exist as molecules made up of two atoms. They react with…

Page 4

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ACIDS
HCL
HSO
HNO




BASES (ALKALIS)
NaOH
KOH




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Page 5

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CHOOSING AN INDICATOR
The pH of the solution left when an acid and alkali have completely reacted
is not always 7.
A neutral solution only forms when exactly the right amounts of a strong
acid react with a strong alkali.

Strong Acid + Strong Acid Any Indicator

Weak Acid +…

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Page 7

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SOLUBILITY
Solute ­ Solid that dissolves in a solvent.
Solvent ­ Liquid that dissolves a solute.
Solubility ­ How much solute can be dissolved in a certain amount of a
solvent.
Saturated ­ When no more solute can be dissolved in a solvent
Solution ­ Solute in a solvent.
An…

Page 8

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HARD WATER
Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions. They react with soap to
form scum. The salts also produce scale when the water is heated. This is a
poor conductor of heat, and makes kettle and water heaters less efficient.
Hard water may be better for human health than…

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Page 10

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Modern instrumental methods of chemical analysis depend on industry. They are
used widely in area including medicine and electronics.

Separating a mixture of compounds uses techniques which are based on
chromatography. Identifying compound once they have been separated then
uses formula mass of the molecule is measured, or other technique…

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