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Slide 1

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Keywords: Active Transport, Osmosis, Diffusion, lungs, alveoli, villi, stomata, root hair cell The Intestine Active Transport
VILLI= tiny protrusions in the intestine which help to
Human Kidney absorb the products of digestion
Vital for homeostasis Use active transport + diffusion to gain as much of
Works by filtering everything from blood and then the valuable materials, especially sugar, as possible
reabsorbing all the sugar, as well as the mineral ions Villi help increase absorption because they:
and water needed. Have a large surface area (squashed up)
Active transport ensures ALL sugar is reabsorbed and Are moist
diffusion makes sure mineral ions and water is Are very close to a large network of capillaries
reabsorbed in the right amounts (absorbed straight into blood stream)
Hot day with little water intake = little urine
Active Transport-
(concentrated)
requires energy to
Cold day with large water intake = lots of urine (dilute)
transport molecules
from low to a high
Dialysis Transplant concentration
·Much more readily ·Eat what you like
available ·Lead a normal life
·Enables you to lead ·Free from restrictions
relatively normal life which come with regular
·No risk of rejection dialysis sessions
Transpiration is the loss of water by evaporation from plants.
·No need for medicine
Plants lose water when they open the stomata in the leaves to let in carbon dioxide.
Transpiration happens faster in hot, dry, windy conditions.
The Breathing System: The Circulatory System:
-Takes air into and out of your body. -The body transport system The Blood
WHITE BLOOD CELLS- fights
-O2 diffuses into your bloodstream and CO2 diffuses out. consists of blood vessels, the PLATELETS- help blood to clot
-Alveoli=large surface area, moist, thin walls. heart and blood. lungs PLASMA- holds dissolved
substances, glucose (taken from
-Human beings have a double
the small intestine to the body
circulation. organs), CO2, waste products
-the heart works a s a pump (urea from the kidneys)
RED BLOOD CELLS- No
moving blood around the body. nucleus- more room for
-the 3 main types of blood vessel Haemoglobin
Special shape with a lowered
are the Arteries (Away from heart), Centre- greater surface area to
veINs (INto heart) and capillaries. absorb gas
HAEMOGLOBIN- substance
body's
which gains oxygen from the
cells
lungs to form OXYhaemoglobin.
Then releases oxygen into cells.
Keywords: Transpiration, artery, vein, capillary, heart, red blood cells, haemoglobin, plasma, platelets, an/aerobic respiration,…read more

Slide 2

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Keywords: Biogas, biofuels, Biogenesis, Pasteur, mycoprotein, antibiotics, Flemming Growing Microorganisms Theory of Biogenesis
Micro-organisms grow in an agar culture medium Pasteur did a series of Exchange in Plants
with a carbohydrate energy source and various experiments. Need osmosis in
other vitamins, minerals and proteins MICROBES CAUSE THINGS TO roots (for water)
You need to take careful safety measures and DECAY and diffusion near
use sterilized equipment to ensure the growth THIS MEANS THAT LIFE stomata (for CO2)
of uncontaminated cultures (MICROBES) CANT JUST APPEAR Leaves thin + flat to
FROM NOTHING, increase SA for
Fermenters (SPONTANEOUS GENERATION). light and a waxy
Microbes can be grown on a large scale cuticle to prevent
Biogas ­ mainly methane ­ produced by using fermenters evaporation
anaerobic fermentation of a wide Fermenters have features such as an Root hair cells
range of plants and waste materials oxgen supply, stirrer to keep increase SA
that contain carbohydrates microorganisms in suspension and because of long,
Gets rid of waste, solves energy needs maintain an even temp, water-cooler thin hairs
and is renewable, however hard to do jacket to remove excess heat and Bacteria and Food production Most minerals +
it on a large scale measuring instruments such as pH and Bacteria are used to make cheese and yoghurt ions needed taken
temperature gauges Yoghurt is formed when bacteria act on lactose through roots
Mycoprotein is produced by allowing the (sugar in the milk), producing lactic acid and
fungus `Fusarium' to grow on sugar syrup changing the texture and taste of the milk
in aerobic conditions Different type of bacteria is added for cheese,
Antibiotics making much more lactic acid is made and it is
kill bacteria Penicillin thicker (curds)
Discovery of penicillin was made by This is cooled and left in moulds to set and then
Alexander Fleming. Penicillium mould more bacteria is added to give different flavours
is used as it provides more penicillin,
as it is made in a fermenter.
Yeast and Food production
Effect of Exercise Anaerobic Respiration Yeast is a single celled organism which can respire
Energy from respiration Your everyday muscle both aerobically and an anaerobically
used to make muscles movements are made possible Aerobic respiration produces CO2 and water and is
Biofuels contract by AEROBIC respiration used to make bread rise
Ethanol based fuels can be produced from When this happens, you If heart rate is increased, Anaerobic respiration produces CO2 and ethanol,
anaerobic fermentation of sugar cane juices need more respiration to blood cant supply O2 quick the process is known as fermentation
by the enzyme carbohydrase. take place (ie more O2 + enough This is used in the production of beer, wine and
glucose, quicker CO2 Anaerobic respiration doesn't other alcoholic drinks
+ves = does'nt produce toxic gases, much release) involve O2 and is less
cleaner and can be mixed with petrol, carbon BREATHING
Causes increased efficient
neutral heart/breathing rate Glucose Lactic Acid (+
-ves = needs lots of space, poor countries Arteries dilate more energy)
grow cash crops instead of feeding people blood for muscles Lactic acid needs to be got CELLULAR RESPIRATION
starvation. increases oxygen/glucose rid of (by reacting with O2
supply CO2 is removed to form CO2 + water) = Muscle cells carrying out
quicker OXYGEN DEBT
Keywords: kidney, dialysis, transplant, immunosuppressant drugs, microbes, fermentation, yeast, bread, alcohol, bacteria, yoghurt
lactic acid,…read more

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