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Biology
Cells

Animal cells

1. Nucleus ­ contains the genetic material that controls the cell
2. Cytoplasm ­ where chemical reactions happen, contains enzymes
3. Cell membrane ­ holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out
4. Ribosomes ­ where proteins are made
5. Mitochondria ­ where…

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Guard cells

1. They open and close the stomata (pores) in the leaf
2. Kidney shaped
3. When the plant has a lot of water the guard cells go plump (turgid) and the stomata stays open so gas
exchange can happen
4. When the plant has low water the guard…

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Digestive system is made up of
1) Glands - salivary glands and pancreas - produce digestive juices
2) stomach and small intestines - absorbs soluble food molecules
3) liver - produces bile
4) small intestine - absorbs soluble food molecules
5) Large intestine - absorbs water from undigested food -…

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Too low ­ enzymes work slowly Too hot ­ enzymes get damaged

Graph looks like a loop with a peak at 37°C

Artificial conditions

Farming ­ green house creates warmer temperature

Winter add a heater ­ so that it doesn't get too hot add ventilation

Light always needed ­ farmers…

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Transects ­ they show how organisms are distributed along a line
o You measure out a line and either you count the number of organisms you are interested in that touch
the line or you can use a quadrat moving along the line
To work out the population size in…

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Enzymes and Digestion

Digestive enzymes break down big molecules into smaller ones
o Starch, protein and fats are big molecules - they are too big to pass through the walls of the
digestive system
o Sugars, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids are smaller molecules ­ they can pass through…

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Respiration is the process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose which goes on in every cell in
your body
Aerobic respiration needs plenty of oxygen
o It is respiration using oxygen
o It is the most efficient way to release energy from glucose
o You can have anaerobic…

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o While high levels of carbon dioxide and lactic acid are detected in the blood by the brain, you keep
breathing hard to fix this problem

Uses of enzymes

Enzymes are uses in biological detergents
o Enzymes are the biological ingredients in biological detergents and washing powder
o They're mainly…

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DNA taken from a crime scene ­ is compared with a DNA sample taken from a suspect
o Paternity Testing
To see if a man is the father of a particular child

Cell Division ­ Mitosis

Mitosis makes new cells for growth and repair ­ It is when a cell…

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Stem Cells

Embryonic Stem Cells can turn into any type of cell
o Some cells are undifferentiated ­ they can develop into different types of cell depending on what
instructions they're given ­ these are stem cells
o Stem cells are found in human embryos ­ all the different types…

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