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Keywords: Osmosis, Diffusion, Starch, Chloroplast, Vacuole, Cell wall, Nucleus, Biomass Cytoplas The Carbon Cycle
ane Cell Wall Used in lungs O2 diffuses into the
blood and CO2 diffuses into lungs A cell nucleus
Osmosis contains 46
Chromosomes, which
carry genes.
Different versions of
genes are called
Plant Nutrients
The movement of water from a dilute solution Nitrates-to make proteins
(lots of water) to a concentrated solution (less
water) through a partially permeable membrane. Magnesium-to make chlorophyll
Pyramids of Biomass
Owls Show amount of material
Stored as starch at each stage
Carbon dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen
Light and chlorophyll are
Oak tree
also needed
Pyramids of numbers show the number of organisms at each level not always a pyramid shape
Leaves Always a pyramid shape
3 Limiting factors -light as...
Waxy cuticle-keeps water
-temperature in -some is used for
-CO2 Palisade layer-cells contain respiration to
At first as CO2 lots of chloroplasts to
capture light -some is lost as heat
increases so does photosynthesis
Stomata on lower surface -some material is not
but only up to a certain point to allow gases in/out digested
Here light or temperature is the Spongy mesophyll layer has -some is lost as faeces
limiting factor. air spaces to allow gases to
move between cells
Keywords: Allele, Dominant, Recessive, Mitosis, Meiosis, Insulin, Pancreas, Enzyme, Substrate, Active Site, Denatured, pH…read more

Slide 2

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1) 2) 3) Controlling Blood Sugar Glucose Temperature
Controlled by the pancreas, rises (eat Insulin produced
by the pancreas Monitored by
diabetics do not produce food)
causes glucose to thermoregulatory
enough insulin
change to centre in brain and
Enzymes ­biological catalysts Treatments
glycogen receptors in skin.
that speed up reactions e.g. Injections or monitoring diet Normal Normal
respiration in the blood blood Too Hot
mitochondria Enzymes have an optimum glucose -hair lies flat
temperature and pH. level Glucagon released
1) Enzyme and substrate level. -blood vessels
Changes in pH/temp can and glycogen
2)Substrate binds to active site denature the enzyme so its dilate so heat lost
Glucose converted back to
shape changes and the through skin
3) Substrate is broken down falls glucose
substrate can't bind to the -sweat produced
active site (exercise)
Too Cold
Inheritance- Parents who are both carriers of
Uses of Enzymes the Cystic fibrosis allele (c). -goosebumps &
hairs trap air
-Biological washing powders ParentsCc x Cc
-blood vessels
-In baby foods Gametes C or c x C or c
-In slimming foods- fructose is (egg/sperm) C c
-no sweat
made using isomerases.
Possible Outcomes C CC Cc
Fructose is sweeter than -shiver, respiration
glucose so less is needed. 75% Normal c Cc cc releases heat
25% sufferers
Meiosis ­used to
Enzymes and digestion make the sex
Large molecules are broken down so they Mitosis-used for cells (gametes)
can be absorbed. normal cell -the chromosomes
Cystic Fibrosis
-Amylase breaks down starch into sugars in growth are copied
the mouth and small intestine. Caused by recessive allele (so 1) Parent cell -cell divides twice
-Proteases breakdown proteins into amino two copies of allele are needed). 2) Chromosomes make to give four cells
acids in the stomach and small intestine. identical copies
A thick sticky mucus is
-Lipases breakdown fats into fatty acids and of themselves
produced affecting air passages
and digestive systems 3)They line up along
glycerol in the small intestine.
the centre
4) They move apart
Huntingtons-Caused by dominant 5)Two daughter cells
Starch glucose form each with
allele (so only one of allele are
needed). Affects nervous system, 46 identical
shaking, erratic movements and chromosomes to
46=chromosomes in normal cell mental deterioration the parent cell
23=chromosomes in sex cells…read more


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