AQA AS Geography Population: Ageing Population

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  • Created on: 22-08-13 19:29
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Population Change
The Dependency Ratio
The dependency ratio gives the proportion of the population that has to be supported by
the working population.
Young people, aged 0-14, and older people, over 65, are generally dependent on the
working population, ages 15-65, - they need to be looked after or financially supported.
Dependency ratio = (population 0-14) + (population over 65)
working age population
A high dependency ratio means that there are a greater proportion of dependent people.
The Juvenility Index
How many young people there are in comparison to the rest of the population.
Juvenility index = population 0-19
population 20 and over
The higher the juvenility index - the greater proportion of young people in a population.
The Old Age Index
Old Age Index = population 65 and over
population 20-64
The higher the old age index, the greater proportion of elderly people in a population.

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Ageing Populations
An ageing population means the proportion of older people is increasing, which causes an
increase in the dependency ratio.
This has social, economic and political effects:
Increased pressure on public services There's a greater demand for services like
hospitals, hospices and doctors.
More people are needed to care for the
elderly, so more carers and nurses will need
More people will act as unpaid carers to
their own elderly family members, putting
pressure on them socially and financially.…read more

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Reduced work force A smaller proportion of the population is
working, which may slow economic growth
Increased taxes Pensions and services are paid for by taxes
A greater proportion of older people
claiming pensions and support could mean
higher taxes for the working population
Spending The elderly have savings and pensions to
Businesses More businesses are created targeting the
elderly market
Pressure on government There will be a greater pressure on the
government to provide free transport
Voting Elderly issues will be…read more

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Problems caused by an ageing population
Pension Many elderly people only have the basic
state pension to live off
If the price of food or fuel rises, it's harder
for them to compensate
As life expectancy increases, more people
are claiming pensions for longer
The government will be receiving less tax
Health The World Health Organisation warns that
an ageing population will lead to increasing
heart disease, cancer and diabetes
Housing An ageing population creates a need for new
housing which is expensive and needs…read more

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The UK Ageing Population
The UK population is ageing ­ people over 65 make up a large part of the population and it's
In 2005, 16% of the population of the UK were over 65.
This is expected to rise to 25% by 2041.
This is because:
Increasing life expectancy
Between 1980 and 2006 life expectancy rose 2.8 years for women and 4 years for
It's currently 81.3 for women and 76.…read more

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Pressure on pension system There aren't enough people of working-age
to pay for an adequate pension for the
retired population
State pensions are paid by the working
population through taxes
- Today, 60% of the population pay
- By 2030, only 56% of the population
will pay taxes
Poverty The state pension isn't very large, and many
people don't have other savings
The working population isn't large enough to
provide a better pension
Health service There is a greater pressure on the health…read more


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