AQA AS Geography Coasts: Mindmap 1

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  • Physical Geography
    • A model is a term used to understand a complex idea in a simpler form.
      • Inputs
      • Outputs
      • Transfers
      • Boundaries
    • Open system: inputs come from other natural systems as well as outputs to other systems.
    • Closed system: has no new inputs or outputs.
      • Open system: inputs come from other natural systems as well as outputs to other systems.
      • Every system has...
        • Energy eg. flowing water, gravity or wind
        • Stores/components eg. beach, sediment
    • Cascading system: the flow of energy and/or matter from one sphere to another.
      • Atmosphere
      • Lithosphere
      • Hydrosphere
      • Biosphere
    • Zones of a coast
      • Backshore: the area between the high water mark and landward limit of marine activity
      • Foreshore: This is the area lying between the high water mark and the low water mark.
      • Inshore: the area between the low water mark and the point where the waves cease to have any influence on the land around them (end of beach)
      • Offshore: the area beyond the beach where activity is limited to the deposition of sediment.
      • HOW TO REMEMBER: Big Fish In Ocean
    • Formation of a wave
      • 1. Open ocean
        • 2. Small circular movements in the water
          • 3. Water approaches coast.
            • 4. Friction from the sea bed slows the bottom of the wave.
              • 5. Water is  pushed up.
                • 6. Height of wave increases.
                  • 7. Upper part of the wave travels faster than the base
                    • 8. Front of wave becomes steeper
                      • 9. Wave falls forward and breaks
    • Flow or transfer
      • Dynamic equilibrium: this represents a state of balance.
      • Positive feedback: where a flow or transfer leads to an increase or growth.

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