I will be adding more topics as I go along.
Chapter 1 - Atomic Structure
- Note: AQA refers to protons and neutrons as fundamental particles (they are not), so I will do so too.
- Three fundamental particles comprise the atom:
- Protons: found in nucleus, relative mass of 1, relative charge of +1
- Neutrons: found in nucleus, relative mass of 1, relative charge of 0
- Electrons: found in orbitals outside of nucleus, relative mass 1/1840, relative charge of -1
- The nucleus is held together by the strong nuclear force (else proton-proton repulsions would shatter it instantly)
- As a general rule of thumb, the nth main electron energy level holds 2n^2 electrons.
- To draw electron 'dot and cross' diagrams, put the chemical symbol in the centre, surrounded by circles representing main energy levels with dots or crosses representing electrons.
- The first main shell consists of an s sub-orbital (s is spherical, will hold 2 electrons), called 1s.
- The second main shell consists of an s and THREE p sub-orbitals (p is dumbell/double-ice-cream-cone shaped, each holds two to give a total of 6)
- The third main shell consists of all of the same as in the second but with FIVE d sub-orbitals (four are clover shaped, the other is like a p orbital but with a ring around it, giving a total of 10)
- Fourth contains 7 f sub-orbitals extra, fifth contains 9 g orbitals extra, etc. etc.
- Electrons always fill sub-orbitals singularly before pairing occurs*
- Two electrons in the same orbital have opposite spins, represented by up/down arrows.
- The outermost electron is not necessarily at the highest energy level. In terms of…
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