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INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
The physical and chemical properties of organic compounds depend on two factors:
The number and arrangement of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The greater the number of carbon atoms, the larger the Van der Waal's forces and the
higher the melting points, boiling points and viscosity.…

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5 Pent-
6 Hex-


Homologous Series Prefix or suffix Example
Alkanes -ane Propane
Alkenes -ene Propene
Branched Groups -yl Methyl propane
Haloalkanes Chloro- Chloro-propane
Bromo-
Fluro-
Iodo-

With Alkenes you need to specify where the double bond is and use the numbers from there.
Branched Group

1 No prefix
2…

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Pentane

36


Methylbutane

28




2,2-dimethylpropane



10




Type of Formula What it shows you Example
General formula An algebraic formula that can CnH2n+2
describe any member of a
family of compounds
Empirical formula The simplest ratio of atoms of C2H5
each element in a compound.
Molecular formula The actual number of…

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How does it work?
First the crude oil is vaporised at about 350 degrees
The vapourised crude oil goes into the fractionating column and rises up through
the trays. The largest hydrocarbons don't vaporise at all because their boiling
points are too high. They just run to the bottom and…

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Kerosine or paraffin Plane fuel, petrochemicals
Diesel or gas oil lorry, central heating fuel
Mineral/lubricating oil Lubrication,
petrochemicals
Fuel oil Ship fuel, power stations
Wax and grease Candles, grease, polish
Bitumen or tar Road surfaces, roofing




Type of cracking Thermal Catalytic

Conditions High temperature (400 ­ High temperature (450 oC)…

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The greenhouse gases are methane, carbon dioxide and water vapour.

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