AQA AS Chemistry Unit 1 Revision

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  • Created on: 18-04-13 16:50
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How
are
subat
omi
c par
ti
cl
es
arr
anged?
Pr
o t
onsa
ndn e ut
ronsa
rei
nt
h ec
e nt
reo
ft
h ea
tom hel
dt
oget
her byt
hes
trongn
uclear
for
cew
hi
chi
ss
t
ronger
than
el
ectr
ost
ati
c f
orces
because
it
over
comes t
he f
orces
of
repul
sion
how ever
i
t
has
a ver
y shor
t
range.
How
are
elect
rons
arr
anged?
El
ectr
onsc
anb et ho ught
of
ass
me aredo
ut cl
oudso
f
char
g e.
Theyc
ana
lsob
et
hought
t
ob
ea
r
rangedi
nshel
lso
r
bit
i
n g
2
t
he nucl
eus.
2n i
s t
he number
of
elect
rons
in
each
shel
l.
(
n =
shell
number
)
What
ar
e i
sot
opes?
Thesea
rea
tomsw it
ht
hes
amen
u mber of
pr
otonsb
ut
ad i
f
ferent
numb er
of
neut
ronsh
o wever
theyr
eact
chemi
cal
lyt
he
same way.
For
car
bon:
Car
bon12
is
the
mo st
common
isot
ope,
then
C ar
bon 13
and
ther
e
is
a t
race
amo unt
of
Car
bon14.
What
i
s Car
bon14?
Thi
si
sar
a di
oact
ivei
sot
opeo
f
car
bonb
ecausei
t
sn
ucl
eusi
su
nst
abl
ec
ausi
ngi
tt
ob
r
eakd
owna
ndg
i
veo
f
f
bit
so
f
i
ts
nucl
eus
or
ener
get
ic
rays.
What
i
s Radi
ocar
bon
dat
ing?
Radiocar
bond
a t
ingc
anb
eu s edt
of
indt
hea
geo
f or
ganicma
tt
er.
Ther
ei
sasma ll
f
ixedp
ropor
ti
ono
f
Carbon14i
na ll
l
i
ving
or
gan i
smsb
u t
whent
heyd
ien
omo
r eC
a r
bon 14i
stakeni
na
ndt
heC
a r
bon 14d
e c
a yso
ver
ti
mea
ndr
adioact
ivi
tys
l
o wl
y
f
all
s.
U si
ngc
arbon 14'
sk
n ownh
a l
f l
if
es
c i
ent
ist
sc
a nw
orko
ut
thet
i
meo
ft
heo
rganism'sd
eat
hb
yw or
kingo
ut
howl ongi
t
has
taken
for
t
he r
adioact
ivi
ty
to
fal
l.
What
i
s t
he
mass
spect
romet
er?
The
mass
spect
romet
er
is
used
to
det
ermi
ne
the
rel
ati
ve
atomi
c and
mol
ecul
ar
masses
of
subst
ances.
Masss
pect
romet
ersh
avet
ob
eu
nder
ahi
ghv
acuum whi
chi
spr
oducedb
ya
pump.
What
ar
e t
he
5 st
ages
of
a mass
spect
romet
er?
1.Vapori
sati
on ­
the
samp l
e i
s t
urned
int
o a
gas at
ver
y hi
gh t
emp er
atur
es
2.I
onisat
ion­A
t omso
rmo
l ecul
esd
iff
usei
nt
oab
e am of
el
ectr
onsf
r
om ane
l
ectr
ong
u nt
hat
fi
resh
i
ghe
ner
gy
el
ectr
ons causi
ng an
elect
ron
from each
gaseous
pa r
ti
cl
e t
o be
knocked out
cr
eat
ing
1+
ions.
+
X
(g)
+
e
(g)
X (
g)
+ e (
g)
+ e (
g)
[
Thoughn
e arl
ya
ll
thea
tomsl
osej
ust
onee
lect
ron,
somed oubl
yc
hargedi
ons(
about
5%)
ma ya
lsob
ef ormedw
it
ha2
+
char
ge. Becauset
heya
red
o ubl
yc
h ar
ged,
theya
c cel
erat
ea
n dd
ef
lect
moret
hanas
i nglyc
hargedi
ona
n db
ehavel
ike
at
omsw ithh
alf
t
h ema
sso
f thes
i
ngl
yc har
gedi
o ns.
Thesec
ausep
eakst
os
howb ut
w i
thv
erys
mall
r
elat
ivea
bundances
i
nt
hema
s ss
pectr
um si
nced
o ubl
ei
oni
sat
ioni
srar
eb ecausei
t
sr
equi
resmu
chmo
r ee
nergyf
or
t
h ee
l
e ct
rong
unt
ok
nock
out
2
elect
rons
inst
ead
of
1]
3.Accel
erati
on­t
hep
o sit
ivei
onsa
rea
ttr
actedt
owardsan
e gat
ivel
yc
hargedp
latea
ndt
heyp
asst
hr
oughas
er
ieso
f
sl
i
ts
so t
he y
focus
int
o a
b ean.
The
sma l
ler
t
he mass of
t
he i
ons,
the
fast
er
they
go.
4.Defl
ect
ion­T
h eb
e am of i
onsmo
v esi
ntoama
g net
icf
i
elda
t
right
angl
est
ot
hed
ir
ect
iono
f
tr
avel.
Thema
g neti
c
f
iel
dd
e f
lect
st
heb
ea m andt
hema
g nit
udeo
f
def
lect
iond
ependso
nt he(
m/z)
ma sst
oc
har
ger
ati
oo
f t
hei
onw
h ere
def
lect
ioni
slargef
or
asma l
ler
ma sst
oc
ha r
ger
ati
o. Thema
g ni
tudeo
f
defl
ecti
ona
lsod
ependso
nt
hes tr
engtho
f

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Page 2

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Ast
hes
trengt
ho
f
thema
g neti
cf
iel
di
s
i
ncreased,
i
ons of
i
ncreasi
ng mass are
detect
ed.
5.…read more

Page 3

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Cr
(24)
4s
star
ts
fi
ll
i
n g
aft
er
3d si
ngl
y so
[Ar]
3d5
4s1
Cu (
29)
Elect
rons
pa i
r
up f
ir
st
in
3d
and t
hen
star
t
fi
ll
i
n g
4s
so
[Ar]
3d10
4s1
What
i
s i
oni
sat
ion
ener
gy?
I
onisat
ione
n er
gyi
st
hee
nt
hal
pyc
hange(
ener
gyr
equi
red)
t
or
emoveo
nemo
l
eo
f
el
ect
ronf
r…read more

Page 4

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S,
p,
da ndf
ar
el
i
n esi
nt
hea
tomice
missions
pectr
a.
Wh ene
l ement
sa
reh
e at
edt
heyg
iveo
ut
l
ight
of
cert
ain
wavelengt
hsa
se
x ci
tede
lect
ronsf
al
l
backt
oal
ower
energyl
evel
whi
chc
ausesl
i
nest
oa
ppear
i
nthes
pectr
um of
l
i
g ht
t
o appear
.…read more

Page 5

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Thi
so
ccursb
et
w eenme
talsa
ndn
o nme
t al
sa
n de
lect
ronsa
ret
ransf
err
e df
r
om theme
tal
atomst
ot
hen
onme
t al
at
oms .
I
onsa
ref
ormeda
n dt
heya
rea
ttr
act
e dt
oe
a cho
ther
t
hroughe
lect
rostat
icf
or
ceso
f at
tr
act
iont
hat
ext
endt
hougho
u t
t
he
compound.
I
oni
c compounds
always
exist
i
n a
lat
ti
ce.…read more

Page 6

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What
ar
e t
he
proper
ti
es
of
met
als?
They
are good
e l
ect
ri
ca l
conduct
ors.
Metal
sa
reg oo dc
ond uct
orso
f heat
andt
heyh
a veh
ight
herma l
conduct
ivi
ti
est
hisi
sd
u et
ot
hes
eao
f el
ectr
on s
and
also
due to
energy bei
ng spread
thr
ough cl
osely
pa cked
vibr
ati
ng i
ons.…read more

Page 7

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I
rons
provi
de
the
heat
t
o br
eak
hydr
ogen
bonds
and
thi
s r
efor
m i
n t
he
new posi
ti
on
w hen
the
ir
on
is
removed.
What
i
s mat
ter
l
ike
in
gases,
l
iqui
ds
and
sol
ids?
I
ng
asest
hep
art
icl
esa
r ef
ar
apart
andmo
v ei
nrapi
dr andom moti
on.…read more

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What
i
s combust
ion
anal
ysi
s?
Thi
si
srou t
inel
yu
sedi
nt
hep
h arma ceut
ical
i
ndustr
y. Thes
amp l
ew
h ichi
sanu
n know nc
omp oundi
sburnt
comp l
etel
yi
na
st
ream of
oxygena
n dt
hep
r oduct
sa rew
a ter
, car
b ond
ioxi
dea
n ds
ulphur
dioxi
de.…read more

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What
ar
e i
somer
s?
These
are
mol
ecul
es
w i
th
the
same
mol
ecul
ar
for
mul
a but
have
thei
r
atoms
arr
anged
dif
fer
ent
ly.
What
ar
e s
truct
ural
i
somer
s?
These
are
mol
ecul
es
w i
th
the
same
mol
ecul
ar
for
mul
a but
have
a di
ff
erent
st
ruct
ural
f
ormul
a.…read more

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What
i
s i
ndust
ri
al
cracki
ng?
Thi
si
sw hens
hor
ter
chai
np
r
oduct
st
hat
ar
emo
r
ee
conomi
cal
lyv
al
uabl
ea
r
eo
bt
ainedb
yc
r
acki
ngo
r
br
eaki
ngl
onger
chai
n
f
ract
ions.…read more

Comments

Ricky Rozay

topman

Molly

Kinda word-y, but I guess it can't be avoided
Pretty helpful, though
Thanks

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