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Lung Disease ­ Pulmonary Tuberculosis
The features of the lungs that make them so good at gas exchange also makes them
susceptible to disease.

The large volumes of air passing through the lungs may carry infectious pathogens or other
microscopic particles that cause disease.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Causes and Symptoms

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Course of Infection
Once mycobacterium tuberculosis has been inhaled by someone who is not immune to it,
the infection follows a particular course:

1. The bacteria grow and divide within the upper regions of the lungs where there is a
plentiful supply of oxygen

2. The body's immune system respond…

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Prevention and Control of TB
The main biological preventative measure for TB is vaccination.

All children in the UK are routinely tested for their immunity to TB.

Vaccination of those individuals who are already immune is unnecessary and dangerous.

Those without immunity are given the vaccine.

This is a weakened…

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Pulmonary Fibrosis
Pulmonary fibrosis arises when scars form on the epithelium of the lungs causing them to
become irreversibly thickened.

Scar tissue is thicker and less elastic than normal lung tissue.

This means that the lungs are less able to expand and so can't hold as much air as normal…

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Asthma is a respiratory condition where the airways become inflamed and irritated.

The causes vary from case to case but it's usually because of an allergic reaction to
substances such as pollen and dust.

During an asthma attack, the smooth muscle lining the bronchioles contracts and a large

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Emphysema is a lung disease caused by smoking or long term exposure to air pollution ­
foreign particles in the smoke become trapped in the alveoli.

This causes inflammation, which attracts phagocytes to the area.

The phagocytes produce an enzyme that breaks down elastin which is a protein found…

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Risk Factors of Lung Disease
There are a number of specific risk factors that increase the probability of someone
suffering from lung disease.

In this content lung disease refers to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes
emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

These risk factors include:

Air pollution ­ pollutant particles…


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