AQA AS BIOLOGY UNIT 1

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Unit 1 Biology and disease
Biochemistry
Organisation of matter
Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass.
All forms of matter are made up of elements.
The elements hydrogen, carbon and oxygen make up most of the human body.
Atoms: the smallest unit of matter that are unique to a particular element.
Molecules: units of two or more atoms bonded together.
Protons: positive particles.
Neutrons: neutral particles.
Electrons: negative particles.
Bonding
Ionic bonding:
An association between 2 oppositely charged ions.…read more

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Unit 1 Biology and disease
Examples:
o Between water molecules.
o Between water and ammonia.
o Between water and glucose.
o Within DNA ­ base pairing.
Polymers and Monomers
Biological molecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are often polymers and are based on a
small number of chemical elements.
Group Name Polymers Polymer Monomers Monomer example
example
Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Starch Monosaccharides glucose
Proteins Polypeptides Amylase Amino acids Leucine
Nucleic acids Polynucleotides DNA Nucleotides Adenosine
phosphate
Carbohydrates
General details:
Hydrates of carbon.…read more

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Unit 1 Biology and disease
General formula CH2On
Glucose C6H12O6.
Hexose sugar.
Main substrate for respiration.
Transported in mammalian blood.
Monomer for starch, glycogen and cellulose.
The structure of glucose:
glucose link together by glycosidic bonds
This is a condensation reaction Involves the loss of a water molecule.
It joins 2 sugars by an oxygen.
Hydrolysis reaction ­ required to split the glycosidic bond.…read more

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Unit 1 Biology and disease
Polysaccharides
Polysaccharide = `many sugars'.
Polymers of monosaccharides.
Formed by condensation reactions.
Variable numbers of monosaccharides.
Branched or unbranched chains.
May be folded.
Insoluble due to size.
Exert no osmotic influence.
Do not diffuse easily.
Split into disaccharides and monosaccharides by hydrolysis.
Starch
Found in most parts of a plant in starch grains.
Food reserve from excess glucose.
Food supply in seeds for germination.
Important food supply in animals.
Made of glucose.
Compact for storage.…read more

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Unit 1 Biology and disease…read more

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Unit 1 Biology and disease
Proteins
Polymers of amino acids.
Large molecular mass.
Wide variety of functions.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
Usually sulphur as well.
Each species has a particular range of proteins.
Determined by the genetic code.…read more

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Unit 1 Biology and disease
To break this bond requires a hydrolysis reaction.
This requires the use of a water molecule to reform the amino and caboxyl groups on each of the
two new amino acids where the bond is split.
Polypeptides
Many amino acids make up a polypeptide chain.
Amino acid polymerisation for polypeptides is part of protein synthesis.
The sequence of amino acids in a chain is determined by the sequence of the genetic code in
DNA.…read more

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Unit 1 Biology and disease
A zigzag formation
Consisting of two or more chains
Running parallel to each other
Linked by hydrogen bonds.
Tertiary structure
Overall threedimensional shape formed by the folding up of a whole polypeptide chain.
Every protein has a unique tertiary structure, which is responsible for its properties and function.
Tertiary structure held together by bonds between the R groups of the amino acids.…read more

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Unit 1 Biology and disease
Globular Proteins:
More spherical.
Smaller ones are soluble.
Specific shape.
Tertiary and quaternary structure forms specific shape.
Often part of the protein has a complementary shape to another specific molecule.
Examples:
o Hormones ­ eg insulin and glucagon attach to receptors on cell membranes
o Enzymes ­ active site specific to substrate
o Antibodies ­ complementary to specific antigens
o Haemoglobin
Lipids
General details:
Large, varied group of organic compounds.
Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Insoluble in water.…read more

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