AQA AS BIOLOGY FULL NOTES

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  • Created on: 18-11-14 12:02
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AS Biology Unit 1 page 1
AQA AS Biology Unit 1 Contents Specification 2 Biological Molecules Chemical bonds 4
Carbohydrates 6 Lipids 8 Proteins 10 Biochemical Tests 16 Enzymes 17 Cells Eukaryotic
Cells 24 Prokaryotic Cells 28 Cell Fractionation 30 Microscopy 31 The Cell Membrane 35
Movement across Cell Membranes 37 Human Physiology Exchange 44 The Gas Exchange
System 46 Lung Diseases 50 The Heart 54 Coronary Heart Disease 58 The Digestive System
60 Cholera 67 Disease Lifestyle and Disease 68 Defence against Disease 72…read more

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AS Biology Unit 1 page 2
Biology Unit 1 Specification
Biochemistry Biological Molecules Biological molecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are often
polymers and are based on a small number of chemical elements.
· Proteins have a variety of functions within all living organisms. The general structure of an amino acid.
Condensation and the formation of peptide bonds linking together amino acids to form polypeptides. The
relationship between primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure, and protein function.…read more

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Physiology Exchange Diffusion is the passive movement of substances down a concentration gradient.
Surface area, difference in concentration and the thickness of the exchange surface affect the rate of
diffusion.
Gas Exchange System The gross structure of the human gas exchange system limited to the alveoli,
bronchioles, bronchi, trachea and lungs. The essential features of the alveolar epithelium as a surface over
which gas exchange takes place. The exchange of gases in the lungs. The mechanism of breathing.…read more

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AS Biology Unit 1 page 3
Heart Heart structure and function. The gross structure of the human heart and its associated blood vessels
in relation to function. Myogenic stimulation of the heart and transmission of a subsequent wave of electrical
activity. Roles of the sinoatrial node (SAN), atrioventricular node (AVN) and bundle of His. Pressure and
volume changes and associated valve movements during the cardiac cycle. Candidates should be able to
analyse and interpret data relating to pressure and volume changes during the cardiac cycle.…read more

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