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Biol 1 Revision

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

Organic macro molecules all belong to the groups ­ Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and nucleic acids.
These are polymers made up of monomers shown in table.




Two important bonds:

1) Covalent bonds ­ are strong. Can only be made or broken by enzymes
2) Hydrogen bonds…

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Alpha Glucose + Alpha Glucose Maltose

Alpha Glucose + Fructose Sucrose

Alpha Glucose + Galactose Lactose

Starch is a polysaccharide found in plants. It is a chain of many glucose monomers joined
together by glycosidic bonds.

Lipids ­ CHOP

Group of hydrophobic compounds. Most common lipids are triglycerides and phospholipids…

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Enzymes (amylase)
Transport (haemoglobin)
Pumps (active pumps ATP)
Antibodies

Amino acids - CHONS

Proteins are made up of amino acids

Amino Group
Carboxylic Acid Group
Hydrogen Group
Variable `R' Group




Polypeptides

Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds




In a polypeptide chain there is always one free amino group…

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Fibrous proteins are long and thin and tend to have structural roles such as collagen. Always
composed of many polypeptide chains.

Protein Denaturing

Proteins held together by hydrogen bonds in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures and
therefore we are able to break these bonds easily by using HIGH TEMPERATURES…

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3) Enzyme concentration ­ increases the rate of reaction proportionally because there are more
enzyme molecules available to catalyse the reaction




4) Substrate concentration ­ as the substrate concentration increases, the rate of enzyme
reaction also increases only up until a certain point where enzyme active sites become
saturated. There…

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Cytoplasm ­ contains enzymes for respiration and everything else for the cell to function

Nucleus ­ largest organelle, surrounded by nuclear envelope with nuclear pores, nucleolus

Mitochondria ­ site of aerobic respiration; outer membrane cristae (large surface area) space
enclosed is called matrix ­ contains circular DNA

Chloroplast ­ site…

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Cell Wall ­ Thick layer outside the cell surface membrane used to give strength and rigidity; freely
permeable to solutes

Different types of Eukaryotic cell




Prokaryotic Cells




Cytoplasm ­ contains all the enzymes needed for metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles

Ribosomes ­ the smaller (70s) type all free…

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Summary of differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells




Cell fractionation

The separation of different parts and organelles of the cell so they can be studied in detail:

1) Cut tissue in ICE-COLD ISOTONIC BUFFER




2) Homogenise the tissue (blend) to break open the cells
3)

4) Filter the homogenate to…

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Microscopy

Resolution of an object is the smallest separation at which two separate objects can be distinguished

Magnification of a microscope indicates how much bigger the image is than the original object

Two different types of Microscopy ­

1) Light Microscope
2) Electron Microscope



Light Microscope Electron Microscope




Magnification Calculation:…

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Phospholipids form a thin flexible sheet, whilst the carbohydrates extend out from the proteins. The
structure is called a FLUID MOSAIC STRUCTURE (components can move around).

Phospholipids ­ arranged in a bilayer (double layer) with their polar, hydrophilic phosphate heads
facing out towards water, and their non-polar hydrophobic tails facing…

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