AQA A Psychology PSYA3 Institutional Aggression

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Institutional Aggression
Aggression within groups: Prisons
Statistics by Howard League for Penal Reform ­ recorded assault incidents rose by 61% between 00 and 09
US ­ Bureau of Justice ­ 70,000 inmates victims of sexual assault
Importation Model
Interpersonal Factors
Irwin and Cressey prisoners bring own social histories and traits to prison ­ influence adaption to environment
Prisoners not blank slates ­ normative systems developed on outside imported into prison
Gang Membership
Membership related to violence and other antisocial behaviour
Allender and Marcell ­ gang members disproportionately engage in violence
Preprison membership important determinant of prison misconduct
Street gangs ­ offend higher levels than nongang with serious and violent crime
Huff ­ gang members in US 10x more likely to commit murder, 3X more likely to assault someone in public than
nongang member ­ similar age and background
Situational Factors ­ deprivation model
Paterline and Peterson Model argues prisoner/patient aggression product of stressful and oppressive
conditions of institution
E.g crowding that increases fear and frustration, and staff experience
Hodgkinson ­ trainee nurses more likely to suffer violent assault than experienced
Davies and Burgess Length of service also significant
Pains of Imprisonment
Sykes ­ deprivation increase in violence. E.g liberty, autonomy and security
Potential threat to personal security increase in anxiety levels, even if majority of prisoners pose no threat
Coping mechanisms ­ withdrawal and seclusion, or violence against prisoners or staff
Group Aggression: Genocide
"Institution" meaning group ­ age, ethnicity, religion, significant features
Violence ­ one institution hostile to another ­ e.g Nazis
Stages of Genocide by Staub:
Difficult social conditions
Scapegoat of less powerful group
Negative evaluation and dehumanisation of targeted group
Moral values inapplicable, killing ensues
Passive audience enhancing process
If target group dehumanised, moral grounding of killing being wrong is abolished
Rwandan Genocide ­ influential Hutucontrolled hate station encouraged listeners to kill Tutsi ­ referred as
Obedience to Authority
Milgram ­ situational pressures lead to genocide ­ ELECTRIC SHOCKS admitted due to being ordered by police

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Aggression in groups: Prison
Importation Model
Support in areas such as age, education level and race
Harer and Steffensmeier ­ data from 58 US prisons ­ black inmates significantly higher rates of vuilent behaviour,
lower relates of alcohol/drug related misconduct than white counterparts
Parallels racial differences in behaviours in US society ­ supports importation model
Gang Membership
DeLisi ­ challenges claim preprison gang predicts violence in prison ­ inmates prior to street gang no more likely
than others to engage in prison violence
Lack…read more


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