PSYA3 AQA A PSYCHOLOGY A2 - AGGRESSION

These are all the notes for A2 Psychology unit 3 on aggression

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - AGGRESSION
SLT OBSERVATION MENTAL REPRESENTATION PRODUCTION OF BEHAVIOUR
We learn aggressive behaviour through observation and imitation. People learn the specifics of aggressive For social learning theory to take place mental MAINTENANCE THROUGH DIRECT EXPERIENCE ­ An individua
AO1 behaviour and also its consequences by seeing others being rewarded or punished for their aggressive representations are required. The child must also who is rewarded for their behaviour (e.g. praised by others) is like
behaviour. (vicarious reinforcement) By observing the consequences of aggression, they when it is and isn't represent possible rewards/punishments for their to repeat that action in similar situations in the future. For examp
appropriate. aggressive behaviour in terms of expectancies of child who has history of successfully bullying other children learns
METHODS OF SLT future outcomes. If opportunities for aggressive that aggression towards other children is likely to produce reward
behaviour arise in the future, children display the
Attention ­ someone can only learn through observation if they attend to the model's behaviour. E.g.,
learned behaviour, provided the expectation of SELF-EFFICACY EXPECTANCIES ­ Children must also develop
children must attend to what the aggressor is doing and saying in order to reproduce the model's
reward is greater than the expectation of confidence in their ability to successfully carry out the learned
behaviour accurately (Allen & Santrock, 1993).
punishment. aggressive behaviours. Children who have been unsuccessfully in
Retention ­ To model the behaviour, it needs to be remembered and placed into LTM; this enables the
behaviour to be retrieved. their use of aggression in previous situations may develop less
Production ­ the individual needs to be able to reproduce the behaviour. The observer must possess the self-efficacy concerning their ability to use aggression and turn to
physical capabilities of the modelled behaviour. other means of resolving conflicts.
Motivation ­ an individual expects to receive positive reinforcement for the modelled behaviour.
AO2/A RESEARCH SUPPORT RESEARCH SUPPORT ­ PERRY ET AL ­ They found STRNEGTH OF SLT ­
BOBO DOLL STUDY - BANDURA ET AL. (1961) that children who were described as highly Unlike operant-conditioning theory, SLT can explain aggressive
O3 Children aged between 3-5 years old were taken into a room with many toys, one being the Bobo Doll. The aggressive by their peers reported greater behaviour in the absence of direct reinforcement. For e.g. in the
children were joined by an adult who interacted with them and played with the Bobo Doll. ½ the children saw confidence in their ability to use aggression to Bobo Doll studies, although participants behaved more aggressive
the adult act aggressively towards the doll and ½ didn't. After observing the adult, the children were taken successfully resolve interpersonal conflicts than did after observing an aggressive model, at no point were these
into a room with toys including the Bobo Doll. He found that those who saw the aggressive adult seemed to children rated as less aggressive by their peers. participants directly reinforced for their aggressive behaviour.
have imitated the behaviour and were acting aggressively as well. This provides support for the SLT because
it demonstrates that children do imitate behaviour CONTEXT-DEPENDENT AGGRESSION CAN BE ETHICAL ISSUES MAKE IT DIFFICULT TO TEST SLT ­ IDA
EXPLAINED BY SLT... - People behave differently in Exposing children to aggressive behaviours (either real life or on
FURTHER SUPPORT ­ PATTERSON ET AL. 1989 ­ Demonstrated that role models are important in the
different situations because they have observed film) with the knowledge that they may reproduce it in their own
development of anti-social behaviour (in both boys and girls) and that parents are the most important ones.
that aggression is rewarded in some situations but behaviour raises ethical issues concerning protecting participants
Through the use of surveys/questionnaires they found that very aggressive children are raised in homes of
not in others., i.e. they learn behaviours that are from psychological harm.
high aggression, little affection, and little positive feedback. This suggests that there is wider academic
appropriate to different contexts. This is strength As a result, experimental studies like the Bobo doll study would n
credibility for the important role played by parents when forming/developing their behaviour.
because it can predict whether aggressive longer be allowed. Therefore meaning that it is difficult to text
HIGH RELIABILITY ­ Carried out in lab where he has full control over the IV (whether there was behaviour is likely in any specific situation experimental hypotheses about the SLT of aggression in children.
positive/negative reinforcement) and the DV (the behaviour shown by the child). This suggests that if the dependent on previous experiences.
research carried out again then then the same results could be achieved.
DEMANDS CHARACTERISTICS ­ Children in these studies may well have been aware of what was
expected of them and responded to the demand characteristics. Noble supports this claim with a report that
at least 1 child reported that `that's the doll we have to hit'. Suggests methodological flaws with the
research.
OVERSIMPLISTIC - Flanagan (2000) suggests that testosterone has been cited as a primary cause of
aggression and other genetic and neuroanatomical structures are involved. SLT does not stress the
importance of biological factors and relies on learning and the environment. This suggests that SLT is
reductionist when explaining aggressive behaviour
ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY - The research was carried out in an artificial environment. For example, the Bobo
doll was designed to be hit so it is no real surprise that it was, and does not mean that children would
necessarily hit a real person. This suggests that the findings from this research could not be applied to
real-life situations

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - AGGRESSION
DEINDIVIDUATION THEORY
DEINDIVIDUATION ­ to lose one's sense of individuality and identity.
AO1
NATURE OF DEINDIVIDUATION - It is a psychological state characterised by lowered self-evaluation and decreased concerns about evaluation by others. This leads to an increase in behaviours that would
normally be inhibited by personal or social norms. The psychological state of deindividuation is aroused when individuals are in: 1) Crowds of large groups, 2) Situations that increase anonymity (e.g.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - AGGRESSION
INSTITUTIONAL
AGGRESSION
INSTITUTUIONAL AGG WITHIN GROUPS (PRISON) INSTITUTIONAL AGG BETWEEN GROUPS (GENOCIDE)
THE IMPORTATION MODEL GENOCIDE
AO1 Interpersonal factors ­ IRWIN & CRESSEY claim that, in prisons, inmates bring with them (i.e. import) their own social Acts committed with the intent to destroy in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial or religious
histories and violent characteristics and this influences their behaviour in prison. group.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - AGGRESSION
NEURAL &
HORMONAL
MECHANISMS
NEURAL MECHANISMS HORMONAL MECHANISMS
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that enable impulses within the brain to be transmitted from one area of the TESTOSTERONE
AO1 brain to another. LOW LEVLS OF SEROTONIN & HIGH LEVELS OF DOPAMINE have been associated with Testosterone is thought to increase aggression in adults due to its action on brain
aggression in animals and humans areas involved in controlling aggression. Studies (e.g.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - AGGRESSION
SEROTONIN TESTOSTERONE
AO2/AO3 RESEARCH SUPPORT - MANN ET AL 1990 - He gave 35 healthy subjects dexfenfluramine, which is known to deplete INCONSISTENT EVIDENCE - ALBERT ET AL 1993 - Claim that despite man studies
serotonin. Using a questionnaire to assess hostility and aggression levels, they found that dexfenfluramine treatment in males showing positive correlation between testosterone and aggression, other studies
(but not females) was associated with an increase in hostility and aggression scores.…read more

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Comments

CRuby

extremely useful useful revision notes, thank you :)

Sheron Gill

These are brilliant thanks. :D 

Beth

what did you get in your exam? :-)

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