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What is an attachment?

According to Shaffer (1993), an attachment is `a close emotional relationship between
two persons, characterised by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity

Maccoby and Shaffer and Emerson identified four main key behaviours of

Seeking proximity to primary caregiver- the infant tries to…

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Advantage: However this sort of data is much more accurate as it's been done for a very
long time in natural situations. They would also have more external validity.

Two ways of measuring their attachment was to consider them into 2

Separation protest- cries and holds out their arms…

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with the more serious types of maltreatment. This shows us that mothers sensitivity is very
important during attachment.

Can secure attachment last?

Wartner et al ( 1994) assessed infants attachment patterns to their mothers at the
age of 12 months using the category of secure attachment plus three insecure attachment…

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Ainsworth and Bell proposed 3 attachment types.

Type of Name of % Of
Characteristics of attachment:
attachment: attachment: infants:

Indifferent to caregiver - unconcerned if present or
Type A 15% absent. Signs of distress when left alone but could
be comforted by caregiver or stranger.

Stay close to…

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The ethics of inducing anxiety in the caregivers and infants may be questioned.( they may
feel worried due to being observed.

The results cannot be generalised to cultures other than that of USA. it is biased

The situation puts infants into 3 categories. This oversimplifies matters because
infants within any…

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Is the view that a child's temperament( personality) (Kagan) is responsible for the quality of
attachment between the child and its caregiver as opposed to the view that experience is
more important.

Belsy and Rovine( 1987) ( against bowlbys theory)

Results: reported that newborns showing signs of behavioural instability *…

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The most basic principle of learning theory is that all behaviour has been learned. This means
that all behaviour isn't innate and doesn't depend on genetic factors. Learning theorists
called the behaviourists argued that learning is the result of conditioning, which is a form of
learning. According to the behaviourists…

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monkeys spend most of their time getting comfy with he cloth monkey that didn't give
them milk- this goes against the learning theory. ( no reward)

This was because the cloth mother provided contact comfort which the monkeys clearly
regarded as more important than food. This also goes against the…

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process or processes. In other words direct associations are formed between stimuli and
responses. For example, a rat sees a lever and presses it to receive food as a reward. On the
other hand, in social learning it is argued that we also learn through indirect approaches. E.g
we learn…

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Social learning theory provides a description of some of the processes involved in parent
child attachment. However as Durkin pointed out, the strong emotional intensity of many
parent-child attachments is not really explained in social learning.

Evolutionary Perspective: Bowlby

He further developed Freuds views by talking about imprinting which is…


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