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Native Americans
1865 - 1992…read more

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Who were they?
· In 1492 Columbus arrived in America, believing it to be India.
· Hence why the people that lived there were called Indians (Native Americans).
· The Natives were nomadic (they were always on the move) and had there own culture, religions
and laws.
The destruction of their way of life:
· The Native Americans were moved to reservations, which destroyed the nomadic way of life.
· They lost their land to the whites
· The attempt of Americanisation
· They were tricked out of their lands by treaties
· Assimilation was attempted
· When the whites arrived they headed out west
· The Federal Government were the ones that took the land
· The plain wars 1862 ­ 67; the tribes vs. the US army
· There were no food on the reservations (they couldn't hunt)
· The union pacific railway helped the move across America meaning more settlements and forts
(Federal Territories)…read more

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Assimilation before 1900
·The settlers wanted to destroy their old way of life and make the Native
Americans "American"
·To do this they put them in reservations, away from society, which meant that
they couldn't live in the nomadic way that they used to and they were isolated.
However they still held on to their culture and religions within the reservations.
There was also limited food on the reservations and they were basically passive
and had hopeless resistance but they were still attacked (wounded knee)
·Education that is away from traditions
·End polygamy
· Replace the NA chiefs with Federal Indian Agents
·Replace religion with Christianity
·Try and stop hunting and medicine men as well as encouraging farming
·Enforce US laws
·US army was to maintain reservations.
·Some NA did move to towns but they were not accepted…read more

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Dawes Act 1887
· Americanisation was not working, reservations were being destroyed.
· This Act divided the reservations.
· The Act gave land to families to start farms. After 25 years the land
would then belong to them and they would be granted citizenship. The
land left over after the reservations were destroyed would be given to
the whites.
· This divided the NA's because they did not want citizenship or
assimilation. However this would increase their quality of life.
Society of American Indians (SAI)
· 1911, 50 educated NA created an inter-racial tribal group to
campaign for improvements to education and health care.
· However there was a lack of funds and they failed to agree on
assimilation which meant that there was a lack of support.
· By 1920 it had collapsed.…read more

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· There were several legal battles launched by
the Cherokee that challenged laws that forced
Indian's to give up traditional ways of life.
· Lone Wold vs. Hitchcock reached the Supreme
Court before failing.…read more

Slide 6

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World War One
· 10,000 people fought
· NOT segregated from whites
· Contribution was recognised by the government
· They worked in war production factories
· Many moved to urban areas to work during the war
1924 Indian Citizenship Act
· Reward for ww1
· 2/3 already had the vote so it didn't have that much impact
· Some states delayed the voting rights
· They had to take citizenship, had not choice
· It wasn't the result of a campaign ­ they didn't want it.
· Forced Assimilation.…read more

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This is an excellent summary of the key developments in Native American history between 1865 and the 1970s. It is well laid out and contains a great deal of information with key dates and statistics included.

Kate Spink


Good but shocking how the student can spell occupation but can't determine "there" and "their"

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