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African Americans
· Their position in 1865
In 1865 all slaves in the country were formally freed with the
passing of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, days
before the formal ending of the Civil War in early April. This was a
turning point in the progress of African Americans towards
securing a better life since it established their freedom in law and
provided them with some basic human rights. They could now:
· Have their plantation Marriages legalised,
· Worship freely in their own churches,
· Own property,
· Become educated,
· Travel freely.
However, the unleashing of around three and a half million
former slaves into society made the nature of emancipation and
the question of civil rights for the free slaves a major issue in the
post-war period. Moreover, the uncertainties that lay ahead were
compounded by the assassination of President Lincoln.…read more

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1865-1877 Reconstruction Period
· 1865: emancipation proclamation- freedom to
· Military victory for the north
· Struggle between President Andrew Johnson
and Congress
· Congress help more with AA Civil Rights…read more

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The role of African Americans in gaining civil rights (e.g. Booker T.
Washington, Dubois, Martin Luther King, the Black Panthers)
Years Leader/ Role Good/ Bad
1865-95 Frederick Opponent of slavery, supporter of all civil rights (not Good
Douglass just Blacks), raised awareness (newspaper and (Limited)
1865 Self-help groups Comprised of freedmen who joined their earnings to Good
buy land to provide schools and teachers (Limited)
1881-1915 Booker T. Ran the Tuskegee Institute, gave the Atlanta Speech, Good
Washington accommodation, organised the Negro Business League (Limited)
1883-1928 T. Thomas Editor of newspapers that were protesting against the Good
Fortune treatment of Blacks, supporter of Garvey, President of (Limited)
the Afro-American Council
1884-1931 Ida B. Wells Sued the railroad company, public opposition to Good
lynching, women's rights (Limited)
1903-1963 W.E.B. Du Bois Found the Niagara movement (1905), founded the Good
NAACP (Limited)
1909- present NAACP Both Black and White supporters, peaceful, focus on Good
legal aspects, Constitutional organisation, significant (Limited)
long-term role…read more

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Years Leader/ Role Good/ Bad
1917-1925 Marcus Garvey Founded UNIA (1917), Blacks taking control of their own Good/ Bad
affairs, Black Eagle Star Steamship, open air parades, (Limited)
military style leadership
1917-1927 UNIA Campaigned for equal rights and independence of Blacks Good/ Bad
rather than absorbing into the melting pot, encouraged to (Limited)
develop their own institutions etc.
1940-1993 Thurgood Black lawyer winning nearly all the NAACP cases and was Good
Marshall the first Black Justice of the Supreme Court (Limited)
1954-1968 Martin Luther Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955), Birmingham Protest (1963), Good
King Jr. "I have a Dream" Speech (1963), sit-ins, freedom rides, (Limited)
peaceful, desegregation and political rights, views later
1960-65 Malcolm X Member of the Nation of Islam, violent, economic and social Good/ Bad
rights, wrote in a journal, gave speeches, Black superiority, (Limited)
views changed later
1966-1976 Black Panthers Economic emphasis, influenced by Black Power and Malcolm Good/ Bad
X, had a 10-point programme, violent, military style (Limited)…read more

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The roles of federal (presidents, congress and supreme
court) and state governments in the struggle
· Emancipation Proclamation and Civil Rights Act
· - Issued by Abraham Lincoln
· - 1st January 1863
· - It declared all slaves free from their masters and gave
basic human rights.
· - The first of civil rights acts was delivered in 1866 asserting
African Americans as citizens of United States.
· Civil Rights Act
· - Introduced in 1875
· - Equal rights were applied to public areas
· - Imposed to suppress the rise of formal segregation in
southern states…read more

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Very detailed, looking forward to using this next year for my A2 History :D 

Kho the Red

Simply brilliant. Nothing more I can say. Ever so grateful that you took the time to put these up. Thank you.


this is bless, cheers


This is really useful thanks

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