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27/05/2011 Mr Ryan Leaving Cert History

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· Multiculturalism is the appreciation,
acceptance or promotion of multiple
cultures, applied to the demographic make-
Mr Ryan Leaving Cert History
up of a specific place, usually at the
organizational level, e.g. schools,
businesses, neighborhoods, cities or
· In this sense multiculturalism
approximates to respect for ethnic diversity…read more

Slide 3

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· Multiculturalism is seen by its supporters as a fairer
system that allows people to truly express who they are
within a society, that is more tolerant and that adapts
better to social issues.
· They argue that culture is not one definable thing based
Mr Ryan Leaving Cert History
on one race or religion, but rather the result of multiple
factors that change as the world changes.
· Historically, support for modern multiculturalism stems
from the changes in Western societies after World War II,
in what Susanne Wessendorf calls the "human rights
· In which the horrors of institutionalized racism and
ethnic cleansing became almost impossible to ignore in
the wake of the Holocaust.
· With the collapse of the European colonial system, as
colonized nations in Africa and Asia successfully fought
for their independence and pointed out the racist
underpinnings of the colonial system.…read more

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· In the United States in particular, with the rise of
the Civil Rights Movement, which criticized
ideals of assimilation that often led to prejudices
Mr Ryan Leaving Cert History
against those who did not act according to
Anglo-American standards and which led to the
development of academic ethnic studies
programs as a way to counteract the neglect of
contributions by racial minorities in classrooms.
· As this history shows, multiculturalism in
Western countries was seen as a useful set of
strategies to combat racism, to protect minority
communities of all types.
· And to undo policies that had prevented
minorities from having full access to the
opportunities for freedom and equality
promised by the liberalism that has been the
hallmark of Western societies since the Age of
Enlightenment.…read more

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· Multiculturalism is difficult to define.
· Andrew Heywood distinguishes between two
forms of multiculturalism, "the term
Mr Ryan Leaving Cert History
`multiculturalism' has been used in a variety
of ways, both descriptive and normative.
· As a descriptive term, it has been taken to
refer to cultural diversity ... As a normative
term, multiculturalism implies a positive
endorsement, even celebration, of
communal diversity, typically based on
either the right of different groups to respect
and recognition, or to the alleged benefits to
the larger society of moral and cultural
diversity".…read more

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· We hunker down. We act like turtles. The effect of
diversity is worse than had been imagined. And
it's not just that we don't trust people who are not
Mr Ryan Leaving Cert History
like us. In diverse communities, we don't trust
people who do look like us.
· "Diverse peoples worldwide are mostly engaged in
hating each other - that is, when they are not
killing each other. A diverse, peaceful, or stable
society is against most historical precedent."…read more

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