Alexander III and Nicolas II Factfile

Two fact files of Alexander III and Nicolas II, useful for the Tsarist Russia 1855-1917 exam. Hope it helps :)

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  • Created on: 02-01-13 12:38
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Alexander III
Alexander: He was suspicious of western thing and in
rejection to European fashions he grew a beard. He was a
firm believer in autocracy and wasn't going to willing hand
over his power to anyone.
Education: He was tutored by Pobedonostev, who was a
great influence to him, who was quite forceful and did not
believe in appeasing the opposition. He was the force
behind Alexander's anti-Semitism.
Reputation: He was disliked by westerners. He had a
short temper and was aggressive towards his ministers.
Alexander II: His father was assassinated by the Peoples
Will in 1881, which he did not take to kindly to.
Reign: He was reactionary.
His first reforms/policies: He cancelled the Loris-Plekhanov Constitution, which his
father had signed and Alexander's assassinators were hanged. Censorship was increased. He
introduced the Land Captains to effectively replace the Zemstva and the Closed Court
Session which replaced Alexander II's Legal reforms. He removed what little power the
peasants had by reducing their vote in the Zemstva and the towns.
Vyshnegradsky/Witte: his two economic ministers' ­ They improved the economy in
terms of railways, Industry and the middle classes, however they worsened the conditions
of the peasants and the urban proletariat.
Opposition: The opposition against Alexander II continued into Alexander III's reign, if not
increasing. However, Alexander had an aggressive approach toward opposition, which was
highly influenced by Pobedonostev. The Marxists were gaining more support from the Urban
Workers and the Populist's were becoming more powerful, with the new gain in peasant
support. Also, due to Alexander's lack or reform and his reactionary attitude, the Liberals and
the Intelligentsia were becoming more active, although peaceful, especially after the
promise of a having a Parliament being broken after the removal of the Loris-Plekhanov
agreement. The National Minorities were unhappy when Russification was heighted and
Anti-Semitism becoming more wide spread. Overall, the threat of a revolution was becoming
dangerously high and there were some assassination attempts.
Effectiveness: Even though he was not popular amongst the people of Russia and he
failed to modernise Russia socially and politically, he was very effective in terms of the
economy and industry.

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Nicholas II
Nicholas II: He was a shy and nervous man who was
nicknamed `girlie' by his father. He was weak in
comparison to Alexander III.
Education: Like Alexander III he was tutored by
Pobedonostev so his attitude towards autocracy was
the same.
Spouse: He married his cousin the German Princess
Alexandra, who was highly influential to him.
Witte/Industry: With regards to the peasants and
the urban proletariat, Witte wasn't successful.…read more


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