Alexander II, Alexander III and Key Developments



●1.3 - Alex II & Alex III, attitudes & imposition of autocracy, key developments

Alexander II As A Reactionary

Reasons - assassination attempts

  • Reactionaries feared spread of Western ideas

  • National/ethnic minorities ruin Russian strength


  • Dmitry Tolstoy - Minister of Education

  • Tight control on education - eradicate growth of liberal ideas

  • Orthodox Church regained control over education

  • Literature, Science, Modern Language and History - out

  • Maths, Latin, Greek and Divinity encouraged

  • Censorship tightened.

  • Teacher-training colleges set up - increase tsarist control

  • Reluctantly accepted lectures to women at Moscow Uni

Police, law and control

  • Pyotr Shuvalov - head of the Third Section

  • Strengthened the Police

  • Stepped up persecution of national/ethnic minorities

  • Searches and arrests increased

  • 1879 - governor-generals established; could prosecute in military court and exile political offenders

  • Open ‘show trials’ - deter people from revolutionary activity

The Loris-Melikov Constitution

  • 1870s - Russo-Turk war, famine, industrial recession

  • Further attempts on Tsar’s life

  • Accepted that widening democratic consultation would stop the unrest

  • Mikhail Loris-Melikov - Minister for Internal Affairs; released political prisoners, relaxed censorship, removed salt-tax and lifted restrictions on the Zemstva.

  • Third section abolished


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