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Sports studies Unit 3 section 1
Aerobic energy systems

To move we need to contract muscles

To contract our muscles we need energy

Energy comes from food

Food is broken down into chemicals

Chemical broken down to provide energy (chemical energy)

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Immediate usably form of energy needed…

Page 2

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When we use ATP we have to resynthesised it straight away as we do not have a store of
ATP In the body.
ATP can be resynthesised from three different types of chemical reactions
These take place in the muscles cells
Two rely on the food we eat, the third…

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Fats Proteins

Page 4

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Some of our food sources are inconvertible; we can convert them
one way but not the other.

Some conversions easier than others

Easy to convert glucose to fat but not so easy to turn fat into

When resting half to two thirds of our energy comes from fats


Page 5

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Breakdown of glycogen, glucose and fats will leave Co2 H2o and
energy for ATP resynthesis

Atp production occurs in mitochondria (organelles within a cell)

Muscle cells have a large number of mitochondria

Advantages of aerobic ATP production:
+no fatiguing by-products
+the starting chemicals are in abundant supply and will rarely…

Page 6

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Krebs cycle:

1. Pyruvic acid added to coenzyme A COA to become Acetyl
2. Krebs cycle
3. Acetyl CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide, the hydrogen
atoms are transferred to the Electron Transport chain.
4. Hydrogen molecules are oxidized creating water and vast
quanties of ATP (34 molecules)


Page 7

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Can be used in exercise when the activity is continuous and
lasts for over an hour.

Training increases our ability to take in oxygen and therefore
makes this process more effective

Fat has more carbon bonds than glycogen and therefore need
more oxygen to breakdown.

Excess fat stores add extra…

Page 8

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Cardiac hypotrophy


Increased resting stroke volume


Increased blood volume and hemoglobin


more oxygen can be stored in the blood as a result of hemoglobin
and more free fatty acids can be transferred faster as a result of
both increased blood vol and cardiac hypertrophy

Increased muscle stores…

Page 9

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When we begin to exercise we cannot take in oxygen so
produce ATP anaerobically

At the beginning of exercise oxygen consumption is lower
than the required amount. We build up an oxygen deficit


measured in militres per kilogram per minute

can only maintain it for a few seconds


Page 10

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aerobic capacity: the maximum rate at which a person can
consum oxygen

Training effects:

Training can increase V02 Max between 5-10%

Effects of training will vary depending on the gentics of the
individual the intensity of the exercise and the lengh in which the
training regime is undertaken

Blood vol…


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